In China, acupuncture has been considered an effective method for treating gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction diseases for thousands of years. In fact, acupuncture has gained progressive acceptance from both practitioners and patients worldwide. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction have not yet been established due to a lack of systematic and comprehensive review articles. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for GI dysfunction and the associated underlying mechanisms.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility: The Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
BACKGROUND: Chronic psychological stress is associated with enhanced abdominal pain and altered intestinal barrier function that may result from a perturbation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) exploits diverse mechanisms to activate or suppress congeneric gene expression, with regulatory variation associated with stress-related disorders in psychiatry and gastroenterology.
Pain ratings and pain-related cerebral potentials in response to noxious stimuli were investigated under hypnotic hypo- or hyperalgesia. Out of a sample of 50 subjects the 10 most highly hypnotizable were selected using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Phasic pain was induced by brief electrical stimuli intracutaneously applied to the subject's left middle finger. The subjects took part in three experimental sessions. The first session was without hypnosis for familiarization with the experimental surroundings.
The study of pain may be relevant to the study of chemical intolerance (CI) in many ways. Pain is often reported as a symptom of CI and it is defined as a subjective experience similar to many other symptoms of CI, making its objectification difficult. Furthermore, the CNS plastic changes that underlie the development of persistent pain states and abnormal pain responses may share some similarities with those involved in the sensitization to environmental chemicals.
Irritable bowel syndrome can remit spontaneously, implying cure is possible. Predictors of good prognosis include a short history, acute onset(possibly postinfective origin), absence of psychological disorders, and resolution of chronic life stressors. Possible-disease modifying treatments with long-lasting effects include diet and anti-inflammatory and psychological treatments. Dietary modifications, which often involve excluding dairy and wheat products, are successful in some patients. Anti-inflammatory treatments have been subjected to one RCT in postinfective IBS without benefit.
BACKGROUND: IBS affects 5-11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. AIM: To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents.
OBJECTIVES: In a recent study hypnosis has been found to relieve persistent idiopathic orofacial pain. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is widely used to evaluate somatosensory sensitivity, which has been suggested as a possible predictor of management outcome. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) possible associations between clinical pain relief and baseline somatosensory sensitivity and (2) the effect of hypnosis management on QST parameters.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditionally, Acorus calamus has been used for the treatment and management of headache, migraine, body ache and severe inflammatory pain in the Unani, Ayurveda and Indian system of medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: Present study focuses on the evaluation of saponin rich extract of Acorus calamus (SRE-AC) in chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain and neuronal functional changes in rats.
CONTEXT: Guggulipid is a neutral fraction of ethyl acetate extract of gum resin of the tree Commiphora mukul Engl. (Burseraceae) and used in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of neurological disorders. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to assess the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activities of guggulipid in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The screening study included the CCI and L5-L6 SNL models of neuropathic pain. Guggulipid (100 and 50 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally in a blinded, randomized manner from postoperative day (POD) 7 to 13.
OBJECTIVE: Although the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for fibromyalgia are used to identify individuals with both widespread pain and tenderness, individuals who meet these criteria are not a homogeneous group. Patients differ in their accompanying clinical symptoms, as well as in the relative contributions of biologic, psychological, and cognitive factors to their symptom expression. Therefore, it seems useful to identify subsets of fibromyalgia patients on the basis of which of these factors are present.