Hyperhomocysteinemia

Publication Title: 
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism

BACKGROUND: A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. OBJECTIVE: The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated.

Author(s): 
Majchrzak, D.
Singer, I.
M‰nner, M.
Rust, P.
Genser, D.
Wagner, K.-H.
Elmadfa, I.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have addressed whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are associated with cognitive function in middle-aged and older populations, as well as whether specific areas of cognition are more affected than others. We examined the cross-sectional association between MetS and six areas of cognitive function in healthy cognitively intact adults without diabetes (n = 853, mean age 61 years) randomized in two intervention trials. METHODS: The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria were used to identify subjects with MetS.

Author(s): 
Gatto, Nicole M.
Henderson, Victor W.
St John, Jan A.
McCleary, Carol
Hodis, Howard N.
Mack, Wendy J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Renal Nutrition: The Official Journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between adherence to prescribed folic acid supplements and folic acid intake, serum folate and plasma homocysteine in hemodialysis patients. The effects of change in adherence patterns from enrollment to 1 year later on changes in these same measures were also assessed. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six hemodialysis patients who participated in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study's Homocysteine ancillary study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Folic acid supplement intake, serum folate, and plasma homocysteine.

Author(s): 
Leung, June
Dwyer, Johanna
Hibberd, Patricia
Jacques, Paul
Rand, William
Rocco, Michael V.
HEMO Study Group
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations.

Author(s): 
Elmadfa, Ibrahim
Singer, Ingrid
Publication Title: 
Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics

BACKGROUND: An elevated level of homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) has been implicated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Deficiency of dietary factors like vitamin B(12), folate, and genetic variations can cause hyperhomocysteinemia. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in the Indian population is likely to be high because most Indians adhere to a vegetarian diet, deficient in vitamin B(12). In the BACKGROUND: deficiency, variations in genes involved in homocysteine metabolism might have a greater impact on homocysteine levels.

Author(s): 
Kumar, Jitender
Garg, Gaurav
Kumar, Arun
Sundaramoorthy, Elayanambi
Sanapala, Krishna Rao
Ghosh, Saurabh
Karthikeyan, Ganesan
Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy
Indian Genome Variation Consortium
Sengupta, Shantanu
Publication Title: 
Nutrition Journal

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. METHODS: Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated.

Author(s): 
Naik, Sadanand
Bhide, Vijayshri
Babhulkar, Ashish
Mahalle, Namita
Parab, Sonali
Thakre, Ravi
Kulkarni, Mohan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Rats were fed diets with and without 0.5% L-cysteine supplement for 14 d or shorter periods to clarify the mechanism by which dietary cysteine elicits its hypohomocysteinemic effect. Cysteine supplementation significantly decreased plasma homocysteine concentration with an increase in plasma cysteine concentration in rats fed 10% casein diet (10C) or 15% soybean protein diet (15S) but not in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C) or 25% soybean protein diet.

Author(s): 
Kawakami, Yoshiko
Ohuchi, Seiya
Morita, Tatsuya
Sugiyama, Kimio
Publication Title: 
Physiological Research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca

Creatine (Cr) is recommended as a dietary supplement especially for athletes but its therapeutic potential is also discussed. It is assumed that human body uses Cr for the formation of phosphocreatine, which is necessary for muscular work as a source of energy. Production of Cr in a body is closely connected to methionine cycle where guanidinoacetate (GAA) is in a final step methylated from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM).

Author(s): 
Petr, M.
Steffl, M.
Kohlíková, E.
Publication Title: 
Nutrition Journal

BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week) facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD) risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR) and liquid meals, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet) on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. METHODS: Obese women (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet.

Author(s): 
Klempel, Monica C.
Kroeger, Cynthia M.
Bhutani, Surabhi
Trepanowski, John F.
Varady, Krista A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurology

Despite the increasing incidence of cervical artery dissection (CAD) due to chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine, risk factors predisposing to vascular damage are still unknown. In the present study we measured fasting total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentration in 4 subjects with manipulation-related CAD selected from a larger series of patients with spontaneous dissection of the neck arteries (sCAD) and in a group of 36 control subjects. C677T MTHFR genotypes and 844ins68bp CBS genotypes were also determined.

Author(s): 
Pezzini, Alessandro
Del Zotto, Elisabetta
Padovani, Alessandro

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