Hyperinsulinism

Publication Title: 
Genetica

Glucose may drive some age-correlated impairments and may mediate some effects of dietary restriction on senescence. The hypothesis that cumulative deleterious effects of glucose may impair hypothalamic neurons during aging, leading to hyperinsulinemia and other age-correlated pathologies, is examined in the context of genetic influences. Susceptibility to toxic effects of gold-thio-glucose (GTG) is correlated with longevity across several mouse strains.

Author(s): 
Mobbs, C. V.
Publication Title: 
Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine

Aging was thought to be a haphazard process, which was not driven by any defined mechanisms. Recently, it has been reported that changing in single gene expression can extend lifespan. Many mutations that extend lifespan are involved in endocrine signaling. The mechanisms of longevity by such mutations are conserved among various species ranging from yeast to mice. One of the most important pathways underlying the regulation of longevity is the insulin signal pathway.

Author(s): 
Minamino, Tohru
Komuro, Issei
Publication Title: 
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)

Previously, we found that a loss of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-regulated filamentous actin (F-actin) structure contributes to insulin-induced insulin resistance. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that chromium picolinate (CrPic), a dietary supplement thought to improve glycemic status in insulin-resistant individuals, augments insulin-regulated glucose transport in insulin-sensitive 3T3-L1 adipocytes by lowering PM cholesterol.

Author(s): 
Horvath, Emily M.
Tackett, Lixuan
McCarthy, Alicia M.
Raman, Priya
Brozinick, Joseph T.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Diabetologia

AIMS/HYPOTHESES: High-fat diets produce obesity and glucose intolerance by promoting the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and liver. The present studies sought to identify the initial site(s) where insulin resistance develops using a moderately high-fat diet and to assess whether the bioflavonoid, quercetin, ameliorates progression of this sequence. METHODS: Four cohorts of male C57BL/6J mice were placed on diets formulated to be low-fat (10% of energy from fat), high-fat (45% of energy from fat) or high-fat plus 1.2% quercetin (wt/wt).

Author(s): 
Stewart, L. K.
Wang, Z.
Ribnicky, D.
Soileau, J. L.
Cefalu, W. T.
Gettys, T. W.
Publication Title: 
Diabetes Care

OBJECTIVE: To determine insulin resistance and response in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance, and combined glucose intolerance (CGI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 143 patients with PCOS (diagnosed on the basis of National Institutes of Health criteria) underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), and 68 patients also had frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests.

Author(s): 
Karakas, Sidika E.
Kim, Kyoungmi
Duleba, Antoni J.
Publication Title: 
Early Human Development

Stress in early life negatively influences growth quality through perturbations in body composition including increased fat mass. At term (40 weeks) preterm infants have greater fat mass and abdominal visceral adipose tissue than term-born infants. Mechanical-tactile stimulation (MTS) attenuates the stress response in preterm infants and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that MTS, administered during an established model of neonatal stress, would decrease stress-driven adiposity and prevent associated metabolic imbalances in rat pups.

Author(s): 
Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J.
Haley, Shannon
Gulliver, Kristina
Thomson, Anne
Slater, Hillarie
Barrett, Brett
Joss-Moore, Lisa A.
Callaway, Christopher
McKnight, Robert A.
Moore, Barry
Lane, Robert H.
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE: Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient. Findings since the 1950s suggest that Cr3+ might benefit cholesterol homeostasis. Here we present mechanistic evidence in support of this role of Cr3+. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which are rendered ineffective by the hyperinsulinemia that is known to accompany disorders of lipid metabolism, was corrected by Cr3+.

Author(s): 
Sealls, Whitney
Penque, Brent A.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

The objective of the study was to compare the effects of essential vs long-chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in polycystic ovary syndrome. In this 6-week, prospective, double-blinded, placebo (soybean oil)-controlled study, 51 completers received 3.5 g n-3 PUFA per day (essential PUFA from flaxseed oil or long-chain PUFA from fish oil). Anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and androgens were measured; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous GTT (IVGTT) were conducted at baseline and 6 weeks.

Author(s): 
Vargas, M. Luisa
Almario, Rogelio U.
Buchan, Wendy
Kim, Kyoungmi
Karakas, Sidika E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Renal Nutrition: The Official Journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation

OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in multiple patient populations, including those undergoing chronic hemodialysis (CHD). Active vitamin D deficiency has been proposed to play a role in the extent of IR observed in patients with CHD. We postulated that administration of paracalcitol, an active vitamin D medication, influences IR in patients with CHD. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Ten prevalent CHD patients receiving a stable dose of paracalcitol were recruited.

Author(s): 
Hung, Adriana M.
Sundell, Mary B.
Plotnikova, Natalia E.
Bian, Aihua
Shintani, Ayumi
Ellis, Charles D.
Siew, Edward D.
Ikizler, T. Alp
Publication Title: 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

OBJECTIVE: Circulating macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels have been shown to positively correlate with body mass index (BMI) in humans. Our objective in this study was to determine the effects of MIF deficiency in a model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. DESIGN AND METHODS: MIF wild type (MIF WT) and MIF deficient (MIF(-/-)) C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for up to 15 weeks. Weight and metabolic responses were measured over the course of the disease. Immune cell infiltrates in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were examined by flow cytometry.

Author(s): 
Conine, Sarah J.
Cross, Janet V.

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