The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
BACKGROUND: A significant component of the ability to survive to exceptional old age may be familial. This study assessed the prevalence of age-related diseases in the offspring of centenarians. METHODS: The health histories of centenarian offspring (n=177) and controls (n=166) were assessed from 1997-2000 using a cross-sectional study design. The offspring of 192 centenarian subjects enrolled in the nationwide New England Centenarian Study were recruited and enrolled.
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association
CONTEXT: Individuals with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To identify specific biological and genetic factors that are associated with or reliably define a human longevity phenotype.
Several studies have shown that centenarians have better cardiovascular risk profiles compared to younger old people. Some reports have revealed that cardiovascular diseases (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, angina and/or myocardial infarction) are less common in centenarians respect to 70 and 80 years old persons.
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the exceptional longevity patterns in Croatia. The prevalence of nonagenarians (aged 90 years or more) and centenarians (100 years or more) was calculated from the 1953-2001 census data. The data were analyzed with chi-square test and trend analysis. The results indicate steady and significant increasing trends in both age groups, more pronounced in women.
In the late 1960's, preventive health care began to gain in popularity in the United States and the movement carried over into the 1970's. During this time, sizable decreases in deaths from heart disease, strokes, and accidents have been noted. As a result, the lowest death rate in the history of this country (8.9 per 1000) occurred in both 1975 and 1976. Since 1970, an increase in longevity has been documented and it can be said that Americans are living longer--not just longer but hopefully better!
Data were obtained from 70 individuals (M age = 78.7, SE = 4.1 years) who attended the Pritikin Longevity Center's 26-day residential program where they were exposed to a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat diet, and daily exercise. During the 26-day program, serum cholesterol was reduced from 222 (SE = 5) to 179 (SE = 5) mg/dl, and triglycerides were reduced from 156 (SE = 10) to 141 (SE = 7) mg/dl. Body weight was reduced an average of 2.2 kg. Treadmill performance increased from 3.7 (SE = .1) to 5.5 (SE = .2) METs.
The pathogenetic links between diet and diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis remain the subject of much controversy. This article reviews the evidence about the relationship between diet and these two widespread adult conditions, proposes an approach for their early recognition, examines the rationale and safety of dietary changes, and formulates specific recommendations.
It is important to appreciate that the recent advances in nutritional management over the past two decades (19-22) have added to the longevity and the "joie de vivre" of children with chronic renal failure. The significant advances in vitamin D therapy and new treatment of complications in long-term maintenance dialysis have provided the pediatric nephrologist with new avenues of management.