Publication Title: 
Clinical Epigenetics

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype, defined as high waist circumference (?95†cm in males and ?80†cm in females) combined with high serum triglyceride concentration (?2.0†mmol/L in males and ?1.5†mmol/L in females) as a marker of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of this phenotype in high-risk populations, its association with T2D, and the genetic or epigenetic influences on HTGW are not well explored.

Mamtani, Manju
Kulkarni, Hemant
Dyer, Thomas D.
Gˆring, Harald H. H.
Neary, Jennifer L.
Cole, Shelley A.
Kent, Jack W.
Kumar, Satish
Glahn, David C.
Mahaney, Michael C.
Comuzzie, Anthony G.
Almasy, Laura
Curran, Joanne E.
Duggirala, Ravindranath
Blangero, John
Carless, Melanie A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salacia oblonga root (SOR) is an Ayurvedic medicine for obesity and diabetes, those are associated with glucose and lipid metabolism. AIM OF THE STUDY: SOR has been demonstrated previously to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of obesity and diabetes and to be a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator. However, the anti-obesogenic and anti-diabetic mechanisms of SOR are still not largely understood.

Wang, Jianwei
Rong, Xianglu
Li, Wenlong
Yamahara, Johji
Li, Yuhao
Publication Title: 

BACKGROUND: Prospective studies indicate that baseline levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypic marker of inflammation, are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Limited studies have examined therapies that influence high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) levels, especially in hyperlipidemic patients.

Jialal, I.
Stein, D.
Balis, D.
Grundy, S. M.
Adams-Huet, B.
Devaraj, S.
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE: In our previous studies that examined in vivo activities of oncostatin M (OM) in upregulation of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) expression, we observed reductions of LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels in OM-treated hyperlipidemic hamsters. Interestingly, the OM effect of lowering plasma TG was more pronounced than LDL-cholesterol reduction, suggesting additional LDLR-independent actions. Here, we investigated mechanisms underlying the direct TG-lowering effect of OM.

Zhou, Yue
Abidi, Parveen
Kim, Aekyong
Chen, Wei
Huang, Ting-Ting
Kraemer, Fredric B.
Liu, Jingwen
Publication Title: 

Activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) has been reported to reduce atherosclerosis in mouse models. However, this can be associated with enhanced liver de novo lipogenesis and elevation of plasma triglyceride-rich VLDL, which may limit its clinical use. In this study, we administered orally the LXR agonist T0901317 to male LDLR-/- mice fed a Western diet. This induced a persistent enhanced hypertriglyceridemia by largely increasing plasma triglyceride-rich VLDL.

Peng, Dacheng
Hiipakka, Richard A.
Reardon, Catherine A.
Getz, Godfrey S.
Liao, Shutsung
Publication Title: 
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

Elevated blood triacylglycerol (TG) is a significant contributing factor to the current epidemic of obesity-related health disorders, including type-2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. The observation that mice lacking the enzyme sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase are protected from insulin resistance suggests the possibility that the regulation of TG synthesis be a target for therapy. Five-week-old Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were fed a diet containing (R)-alpha-lipoic acid (LA, approximately 200mg/kg body weight per day) for 5 weeks.

Butler, Judy A.
Hagen, Tory M.
Moreau, Régis
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Loss of ABCA1 activity in Tangier disease (TD) is associated with abnormal apoB lipoprotein (Lp) metabolism in addition to the complete absence of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We used hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knock-out (HSKO) mice to test the hypothesis that hepatic ABCA1 plays dual roles in regulating Lp metabolism and nascent HDL formation. HSKO mice recapitulated the TD lipid phenotype with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, markedly decreased LDL, and near absence of HDL.

Chung, Soonkyu
Timmins, Jenelle M.
Duong, Myngan
Degirolamo, Chiara
Rong, Shunxing
Sawyer, Janet K.
Singaraja, Roshni R.
Hayden, Michael R.
Maeda, Nobuyo
Rudel, Lawrence L.
Shelness, Gregory S.
Parks, John S.
Publication Title: 
Current Diabetes Reports

The hypertriglyceridemia of diabetes can be classified into mild to moderate (triglycerides between 150-499 mg/dL) and severe hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > or =500 mg/dL). As in any other individuals with hypertriglyceridemia, secondary causes need to be excluded. The management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (chylomicronemia syndrome) includes aggressive reduction of triglycerides with intravenous insulin, fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids, and/or niacin therapy to avert the risk of pancreatitis.

Jialal, Ishwarlal
Amess, William
Kaur, Manpreet
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is associated with monocyte adhesion to the arterial wall that involves integrin activation and emigration across inflamed endothelium. Involvement of β(2)-integrin CD11c/CD18 in atherogenesis was recently shown in dyslipidemic mice, which motivates our study of its inflammatory function during hypertriglyceridemia in humans.

Gower, R. Michael
Wu, Huaizhu
Foster, Greg A.
Devaraj, Sridevi
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Ballantyne, Christie M.
Knowlton, Anne A.
Simon, Scott I.
Publication Title: 
Lipids in Health and Disease

BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering LDL-C, emerging data suggests that phytosterols (PS) may reduce blood triglycerides (TG), however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. METHODS: We examined the TG-lowering mechanisms of dietary PS in Syrian golden hamsters randomly assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet supplemented with PS (2%) for 6 weeks (n = 12/group). An additional subset of animals (n = 12) was provided the HF diet supplemented with ezetimibe (EZ, 0.002%) as a positive control as it is a cholesterol-lowering agent with known TG-lowering properties.

Rideout, Todd C.
Ramprasath, Vanu
Griffin, John D.
Browne, Richard W.
Harding, Scott V.
Jones, Peter J. H.


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