Hypertrophy

Publication Title: 
Oncogene

Many degenerative diseases that occur with aging, as well as premature aging syndromes, are characterized by presenting cells with critically short telomeres. Telomerase reintroduction is envisioned as a putative therapy for diseases characterized by telomere exhaustion. K5-mTert transgenic mice overexpress telomerase in a wide spectrum of tissues. These mice have a higher incidence of both induced and spontaneous tumors, resulting in increased mortality during the first year of life.

Author(s): 
Gonz·lez-Su·rez, Eva
Geserick, Christoph
Flores, Juana M.
Blasco, Maria A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Social Psychology

A predominately European American sample of middle class college students rated hypermuscular female bodybuilders and the men who were romantically involved with them on measures of perceived gender traits, personality traits, social behaviors, and heterosexual behaviors. Participants perceived hypermuscular women, as compared to the average woman, as having more masculine and fewer feminine interests, less likely to be good mothers, and less intelligent, socially popular, and attractive.

Author(s): 
Forbes, Gordon B.
Adams-Curtis, Leah E.
Holmgren, Katie M.
White, Kay B.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Experimental Zoology

Specimens of newt, Triturus cristatus carnifex (Laurenti), anesthetized by submersion in 0.2% chlorbutol in tap water for 15 min, and then placed out of water in a damp terrarium, show hypertrophy of the spleen that in 2 hr gradually increases from 0.31 +/- 0.12%with respect to body weight to 1.56 +/- 0.26% (means and standard deviation calculated for groups of six animals). Other anesthetics either do not produce hypnosis (Veronal), do not have a prolonged enough effect (ethyl ether, chloroform), or induce vasodilatation, which prevents hypertrophy (MS-222, urethane).

Author(s): 
Frangioni, G.
Borgioli, G.
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha by natural and synthetic chemicals induces hepatic hypertrophy. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root (SOW) is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. In the present study, it was found that SOW (100, 300 and 900mg/kg, once daily by oral gavage over a 28 day period) elicited dose-related increases in liver weight (LW) by 1.6%, 13.4% and 42.5%, respectively, and in the ratio of LW to body weight by 8.8%, 16.7% and 40.2%, respectively, in male rats.

Author(s): 
Rong, Xianglu
Kim, Moon Sun
Su, Ning
Wen, Suping
Matsuo, Yukimi
Yamahara, Johji
Murray, Michael
Li, Yuhao
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

The present study evaluated the antihypertrophic potential of the ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE), a well-known edible cardiotonic plant reported in Ayurveda against angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac myoblast cells. Markers of hypertrophy such as cell size, protein content and the concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were analysed for the confirmation of hypertrophy induction.

Author(s): 
Prathapan, A.
Vineetha, V. P.
Abhilash, P. A.
Raghu, K. G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

Efficient osteogenic differentiation and bone formation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) should have clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing. MSCs are adherent bone marrow stromal cells that can self-renew and differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We have identified bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) as one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Here we investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) on BMP-9-induced bone formation. We have found that endogenous IGF-2 expression is low in MSCs.

Author(s): 
Chen, Liang
Jiang, Wei
Huang, Jiayi
He, Bai-Cheng
Zuo, Guo-Wei
Zhang, Wenli
Luo, Qing
Shi, Qiong
Zhang, Bing-Qiang
Wagner, Eric R.
Luo, Jinyong
Tang, Min
Wietholt, Christian
Luo, Xiaoji
Bi, Yang
Su, Yuxi
Liu, Bo
Kim, Stephanie H.
He, Connie J.
Hu, Yawen
Shen, Jikun
Rastegar, Farbod
Huang, Enyi
Gao, Yanhong
Gao, Jian-Li
Zhou, Jian-Zhong
Reid, Russell R.
Luu, Hue H.
Haydon, Rex C.
He, Tong-Chuan
Deng, Zhong-Liang
Publication Title: 
Endocrinology

Somatic growth and adipogenesis are closely associated with the development of obesity in humans. In this study, we identify a zebrafish mutant, vizzini, that exhibits both a severe defect in somatic growth and increased accumulation of adipose tissue. Positional cloning of vizzini revealed a premature stop codon in gh1. Although the effects of GH are largely through igfs in mammals, we found no decrease in the expression of igf transcripts in gh1 mutants during larval development.

Author(s): 
McMenamin, Sarah K.
Minchin, James E. N.
Gordon, Tiffany N.
Rawls, John F.
Parichy, David M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: Recent development of a chiropractic subluxation mimic, the external link model, uses titanium implants on lumbar vertebrae in the rat. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential correlations in the model between linking history, bone resorption, exudate formation, and experimentally induced intervertebral hypomobility. METHODS: Serial lateral radiographs of 73 male Sprague Dawley rats with implanted devices were reviewed.

Author(s): 
Homb, Nicole M.
Henderson, Charles N. R.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Brain

It has been reported that remarkable and sustained activation of astrocytes and/or microglia occurs in cancer induced pain (CIP), which is different from neuropathic and inflammatory pain. The present study was designed to investigate the role of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induced glial neuroinflammation in cancer induced pain using a modified rat model of bone cancer. The rat model of CIP consisted of unilateral intra-tibial injection with Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma.

Author(s): 
Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang
Wang, Xiao-Wei
Yang, Chang-Jiang
Li, Xiu
Mi, Wen-Li
Wu, Gen-Cheng
Wang, Yan-Qing
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