At present, the medical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are focused on topical, locally active antiinflammatories and systemic immunosuppressives, which are thought to exert their targeted effects in the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is a paucity of controlled trials assessing the impact of mind, central nervous system (CNS), and neuromodulation on the overly active immune response in the intestinal mucosa.
This investigation tested the hypothesis that hypnosis can differentially modulate T-cell subsets, and that this effect is mediated by changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) mediators. Seven healthy, highly hypnotizable volunteers participated in three one-day sessions, a baseline and two intervention sessions. Hypnosis intervention entailed a standardized induction, suggestions for ego strengthening and optimally balanced functioning of the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and post-hypnotic suggestions for stress management and continued optimal balance of bodily systems.
Influence of stress on immunity and pathogenesis relates to corticotropic axis: hypothalamus-hypophysis-surrenals (HHS). Its over-stimulation due to traumas during early childhood or before birth seems to generate brain abnormalities such as reduction of hippocampus volume. More typical of adult age, hypothalamus-pineal gland axis (HP), responsible for melatonin production, may be impaired because of chronic stress, mainly through sleep disturbances or addictive behaviours. Old age has been reported to produce same impairments.
OBJECTIVE: Current evidence supports the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing the pain associated with experimental stimulation and various acute and chronic conditions; however, the mechanisms explaining how hypnosis exerts its effects remain less clear. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines represent potential targets for investigation given their purported roles in the perpetuation of painful conditions; yet, no clinical trials have thus far examined the influence of hypnosis on these mechanisms.
Antenatal anxiety has been linked to maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis changes which can affect fetal development and may have lasting effects on the child's psychological development. Treatments for anxiety have hitherto focused on psychotherapy techniques or antidepressant drugs but these do not always effect long term improvement. Aromatherapy and massage have successfully been used to produce significantly greater improvement in reduction of anxiety.
Dried Nardostachys chinensis roots contain sesquiterpenoids that are widely used as herbal tranquilizers. We previously identified the highly sedative sesquiterpenoid valerena-4,7(11)-diene (VLD) from this plant. In the present study, we investigated stress reducing effects of VLD and the associated mechanisms of action. Application of 15-min restraint stresses induced excitatory behaviors in mice. Immobility times in the forced swim test and sleeping times in the pentobarbital sleep test were shortened in the stressed group by 47% and 43%, respectively, compared with the control group.
Argyreia speciosa (sweet) (Burm.f.) Boj. is an Ayurvedic rasayana plant used as an adaptogen. The present study reports the investigations done on the adaptogenic property of ethanol (EtAS; 100 and 200 mg/kg; po), ethyl acetate (EAAS; 100 and 200 mg/kg; po) fraction and flavanoids such as quercetin and kaempferol (25 mg/kg; po) of the root. Immobilization induced acute stress (AS; 3 days) and chronic stress (CS; 7 days) and swimming induced stress models were used to screen the anti-stress effect of the plant fractions and isolated flavanoids.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. A growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health via down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The purpose of this article is to provide a scholarly review of the literature regarding research studies comparing the effects of yoga and exercise on a variety of health outcomes and health conditions.
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Previous studies have identified stress system dysregulation in fibromyalgia (FM) patients; such dysregulation may be involved in the generation and/or maintenance of pain and other symptoms. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the principal known central nervous system mediator of the stress response; however, to date no studies have examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRF levels in patients with FM. The relationship between CSF CRF level, heart rate variability (HRV), and pain, fatigue, and depressive symptoms was examined in patients with FM.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility: The Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Enhanced stress responsiveness has been implicated as a potential mechanism contributing to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and should be reflected in altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Both of these systems can modulate mucosal immune function.