Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System

Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A history of early adverse life events (EALs) is associated with a poorer outcome and higher levels of distress in adult patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. An EAL is thought to predispose individuals to develop a range of chronic illnesses by inducing persistent changes in the central stress response systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

Author(s): 
Videlock, Elizabeth J.
Adeyemo, Mopelola
Licudine, Arlene
Hirano, Miyoshi
Ohning, Gordon
Mayer, Minou
Mayer, Emeran A.
Chang, Lin
Publication Title: 
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot study for the feasibility of planning a definitive clinical trial comparing traditional acupuncture (TA) with sham acupuncture (SA) and waiting control (WC) on menopause-related vasomotor symptoms (VMS), quality of life, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: Thirty-three perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with at least seven VMS daily were randomized to TA, SA, or WC. The TA and SA groups were given three treatments per week for 12 weeks.

Author(s): 
Painovich, Jeannette M.
Shufelt, Chrisandra L.
Azziz, Ricardo
Yang, Yuching
Goodarzi, Mark O.
Braunstein, Glenn D.
Karlan, Beth Y.
Stewart, Paul M.
Merz, C. Noel Bairey
Publication Title: 
Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.)

OBJECTIVE: Current evidence supports the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing the pain associated with experimental stimulation and various acute and chronic conditions; however, the mechanisms explaining how hypnosis exerts its effects remain less clear. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines represent potential targets for investigation given their purported roles in the perpetuation of painful conditions; yet, no clinical trials have thus far examined the influence of hypnosis on these mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Goodin, Burel R.
Quinn, Noel B.
Kronfli, Tarek
King, Christopher D.
Page, Gayle G.
Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.
Edwards, Robert R.
Stapleton, Laura M.
McGuire, Lynanne
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychology

Poor sleep is often independently associated with greater pain sensitivity and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (e.g., greater basal cortisol and exaggerated stress-induced cortisol reactivity). However, the interactions among sleep, pain, and the HPA axis have not been adequately evaluated. In this study, 40 healthy adults provided self-report regarding perceived sleep quality over the past month prior to completion of an acute noxious physical stressor (i.e., cold pressor task; CPT). Following the CPT, they reported on the severity of pain experienced.

Author(s): 
Goodin, Burel R.
Smith, Michael T.
Quinn, Noel B.
King, Christopher D.
McGuire, Lynanne
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: This study gathers preliminary data about the biologic effects of repeated Swedish massage therapy compared to a light-touch control condition. DESIGN: The study design was a 5-week comparison of repeated Swedish massage and light touch on oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine function. SETTING: The setting was an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center.

Author(s): 
Rapaport, Mark H.
Schettler, Pamela
Bresee, Catherine
Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

Eudaimonic well-being-a sense of purpose, meaning, and engagement with life-is protective against psychopathology and predicts physical health, including lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Although it has been suggested that the ability to engage the neural circuitry of reward may promote well-being and mediate the relationship between well-being and health, this hypothesis has remained untested. To test this hypothesis, we had participants view positive, neutral, and negative images while fMRI data were collected.

Author(s): 
Heller, Aaron S.
van Reekum, Carien M.
Schaefer, Stacey M.
Lapate, Regina C.
Radler, Barry T.
Ryff, Carol D.
Davidson, Richard J.
Publication Title: 
São Paulo Medical Journal = Revista Paulista De Medicina

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of adrenocortical function with the use of therapeutic massage has been little studied in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol levels before and after Shantala massage therapy on healthy infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective case series, in a public nursery, in São Paulo. METHODS: Saliva was obtained from 11 infants at the times of 8:00-9:00 a.m. and 4:00-5:00 p.m. in a nursery and 9:00-10:00 p.m. at home.

Author(s): 
Fogaça, Monalisa de Cássia
Carvalho, Werther Brunow
Peres, Clóvis de Araújo
Lora, Mayra Ivanoff
Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima
Verreschi, Ieda Therezinha do Nascimento
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: This study gathers preliminary data about the biologic effects of repeated Swedish massage therapy compared to a light-touch control condition. DESIGN: The study design was a 5-week comparison of repeated Swedish massage and light touch on oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine function. SETTING: The setting was an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center.

Author(s): 
Rapaport, Mark H.
Schettler, Pamela
Bresee, Catherine
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. A growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health via down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The purpose of this article is to provide a scholarly review of the literature regarding research studies comparing the effects of yoga and exercise on a variety of health outcomes and health conditions.

Author(s): 
Ross, Alyson
Thomas, Sue
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a zinc-deficient diet to study its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. As zinc-deficient animals fail to gain weight, they were compared to pair-fed growth restricted animals as well as ad libitum fed controls. The growth velocity curves were superimposable for the zinc-deficient animals and the pair-fed controls; both were markedly reduced compared to the ad libitum controls. Both the zinc-deficient and the pair-fed controls had lower triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine levels compared to the ad libitum controls.

Author(s): 
Morley, J. E.
Gordon, J.
Hershman, J. M.

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