Hypothalamus

Publication Title: 
Maturitas

Although the hot flush is generally recognised by women and the medical profession as the most characteristic and often a very distressing symptom of the climacteric, it remains an enigma. The physiological changes associated with the hot flush are different from any other flushing condition, with an increased peripheral blood flow, increased heart rate and in particular a decrease in galvanic skin resistance, which is unique to the flush.

Author(s): 
Sturdee, David W.
Publication Title: 
Maturitas

Although the hot flush is generally recognised by women and the medical profession as the most characteristic and often a very distressing symptom of the climacteric, it remains an enigma. The physiological changes associated with the hot flush are different from any other flushing condition, with an increased peripheral blood flow, increased heart rate and in particular a decrease in galvanic skin resistance, which is unique to the flush.

Author(s): 
Sturdee, David W.
Publication Title: 
Endocrine Reviews

Studies in humans and in animal models show negative correlations between thyroid hormone (TH) levels and longevity. TH signaling is implicated in maintaining and integrating metabolic homeostasis at multiple levels, notably centrally in the hypothalamus but also in peripheral tissues. The question is thus raised of how TH signaling is modulated during aging in different tissues. Classically, TH actions on mitochondria and heat production are obvious candidates to link negative effects of TH to aging.

Author(s): 
Bowers, J.
Terrien, J.
Clerget-Froidevaux, M. S.
GothiÈ, J. D.
Rozing, M. P.
Westendorp, R. G. J.
van Heemst, D.
Demeneix, B. A.
Publication Title: 
Advances in Food Research
Author(s): 
Lepkovsky, S.
Publication Title: 
Microscopy Research and Technique

Many hormonal signals from peripheral tissues contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake. These regulators including leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, modulate the orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression in hypothalamic nuclei. The anti-aging effects of caloric restriction have been explained from an evolutional viewpoint of the adaptive response of the neuroendocrine and metabolic response systems to maximize survival during periods of food shortage.

Author(s): 
Chiba, Takuya
Yamaza, Haruyoshi
Higami, Yoshikazu
Shimokawa, Isao
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD

As the basis for the lifelong clock and as a primary cause of aging, a process of shortening of hypothetical perichromosomal DNA structures termed chronomeres is proposed in the CNS. The lifelong clock is regulated by the shortening of chronomere DNA in postmitotic neurons of the hypothalamus. Shortening of these DNA sequences occurs in humans on a monthly basis through a lunasensory system and is controlled by release of growth hormone discharged from the anterior pituitary directly into the hypothalamus via local blood vessels.

Author(s): 
Olovnikov, A. M.
Publication Title: 
Aging

In virtually all organisms, life expectancy is profoundly affected by caloric intake. For example, dietary restriction (DR; a feeding regimen of fewer calories compared to the ad libitum level without causing malnutrition) has been shown to lengthen, whereas hypercaloric (HC) diet feeding to shorten, lifespan. Recent findings in invertebrates indicate that specialized groups of cells (e.g.: metabolic-sensing neurons) detect changes in caloric intake and convey energy-status-variation signals to other cells in the body to regulate lifespan.

Author(s): 
Ramadori, Giorgio
Coppari, Roberto
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

Dietary restriction (DR) can extend lifespan and reduce disease burden across a wide range of animals and yeast but the mechanisms mediating these remarkably protective effects remain to be elucidated despite extensive efforts. Although it has generally been assumed that protective effects of DR are cell-autonomous, there is considerable evidence that many whole-body responses to nutritional state, including DR, are regulated by nutrient-sensing neurons.

Author(s): 
Dacks, Penny A.
Moreno, Cesar L.
Kim, Esther S.
Marcellino, Bridget K.
Mobbs, Charles V.
Publication Title: 
Progress in Brain Research

There are numerous examples of sex differences in brain and behavior and in susceptibility to a broad range of brain diseases. For example, gene expression is sexually dimorphic during brain development, adult life, and aging. These differences are orchestrated by the interplay between genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these differences have not been fully elucidated.

Author(s): 
Qureshi, Irfan A.
Mehler, Mark F.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disease defined by inappropriate weight loss and maintenance of body weight <85% of that expected for weight and height; it is most common in adolescent women aged 15-19 years. Numerous studies have highlighted the familial aggregation of the disease, suggesting a significant genetic component to its etiology. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different fields of genetic research--both in humans and animals--that have contributed to the understanding of this complex disorder.

Author(s): 
Clarke, T. K.
Weiss, A. R. D.
Berrettini, W. H.

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