The British journal of theatre nursing: NATNews: the official journal of the National Association of Theatre Nurses
A study of the hypothermic effects of general anaesthesia during breast surgery and its amelioration by the use of a thermal drape to most of the body exclusive of the operating site. Two groups of patients are compared, using a constant anaesthetic technique, a single surgeon and the same operating conditions except for the omission or inclusion of thermal drapes. A review of the homeostatic mechanisms of temperature control and other methods of maintaining body temperature are included.
The effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on the responses produced by acute and chronic administration of pentobarbital (PB) were investigated in male Swiss Webster mice. Intraperitoneal injection of TRH antagonized the hypothermic and hypnotic effect of PB (75 mg/kg, i.p.). Pentobarbital hypnosis was also antagonized by TRH in mice rendered tolerant to PB by implantation of a pellet (each containing 75 mg of free acid form of the drug) for two days.
Recent reports of in vivo antagonism of the acute anti-conflict, ataxic, and lethal effects of ethanol with the partial inverse agonist imidazobenzodiazepine Ro15-4513 implicate the GABAa/benzodiazepine receptor in mediating several acute effects of ethanol. These data raise the question as to whether all of the acute effects of ethanol can be antagonized by Ro15-4513. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the effect of Ro15-4513 on ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex and hypothermia in mice.
The pharmacological actions of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-pyrrolizidineacetamide hydrochloride hemihydrate (SUN 1165), a new antiarrhythmic agent, on the central nervous system were studied in various experimental animals as compared with those of disopyramide, mexiletine and lidocaine, and the following results were obtained. 1. Acute toxicity of SUN 1165 in mice was similar to that of mexiletine, and twice as potent as compared with that of disopyramide and lidocaine.
Male Fischer 344 rats of three different ages (young, 4 months; middle, 13 months; and old, 25 months) were tested for their hypnotic and hypothermic response to a 3.5 g/kg dose of ethanol on day 1 and after an 8-day exposure to 4.0 g/kg of ethanol administered via intragastric intubation. All three age groups displayed, to a similar extent, an increased rate of blood ethanol disappearance (metabolic tolerance) on day 10 and day 16, as compared to day 1. Both young and middle-age rats demonstrated tolerance to ethanol hypothermia, but older rats did not.
INTRODUCTION: Females experience greater liver damage, have reduced brain size, and have greater memory deficits than do males with a similar history of alcoholism. Females have higher peak alcohol levels and faster elimination rates than males. Our goal was to study sex differences in the response of young ethanol-naïve outbred Long-Evans rats to acute ethanol exposure so that we may better understand why females are more sensitive to alcohol toxicity than males.
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
General anesthetics are among the most widely used and important therapeutic agents. The molecular targets mediating different endpoints of the anesthetic state in vivo are currently largely unknown. The analysis of mice carrying point mutations in neurotransmitter receptor subunits is a powerful tool to assess the contribution of the respective receptor subtype to the pharmacological actions of clinically used general anesthetics.
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports a role for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) in modulating the neural and behavioral actions of ethanol (EtOH) and other drugs of abuse. METHODS: We used a 5-HTT knockout (KO) mouse model to further study this relationship. 5-Hydroxytryptamine transporter KO mice were tested for the sedative/hypnotic, hypothermia-inducing, motor-incoordinating (via accelerating rotarod), and depression-related (via tail suspension test) effects of acute EtOH administration.
The endogenous brain constituent, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as well as its prodrug, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), have recently gained interest in the drug addiction field due to their abuse potential and fatalities caused by overdose. It is known that GHB has two sites of actions: the gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptor and a specific-GHB binding site. The present study was designed to extend to GBL the investigations on the contribution of the GABA(B) receptor and the specific-GHB binding site to its in vivo effects.
BACKGROUND: The glutamate system plays a major role in mediating EtOH's effects on brain and behavior, and is implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol-related disorders. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as MK-801 (dizocilpine) interact with EtOH at the behavioral level, but the molecular basis of this interaction is unclear. METHODS: We first characterized the effects of MK-801 treatment on responses to the ataxic (accelerating rotarod), hypothermic and sedative/hypnotic effects of acute EtOH administration in C57BL/6J and 129/SvImJ inbred mice.