Immobility Response, Tonic

Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Author(s): 
True, R. M.
Publication Title: 
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Reserpine, an alkaloid from Rauwolfia serpentina, was widely used for its antihypertensive action. However, its use has been reduced because of its sedative and extra pyramidal symptoms. In the present investigation, reserpine methiodide (RMI), a quaternary analogue of reserpine, was synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated in rats and mice for its central (barbiturate hypnosis, spontaneous motor activity, body temperature, and avoidance of conditioned response) and peripheral actions (blood pressure) in comparison with reserpine.

Author(s): 
Nammi, Srinivas
Boini, Krishna Murthy
Koppula, Sushruta
Sreemantula, Satyanarayana
Publication Title: 
Brain Research Bulletin

Tonic immobility (TI), also known as death feigning or animal hypnosis, is a reversible state of motor inhibition that is not only triggered by postural inversion and/or movement restraining maneuvers but also by repetitive stimulation and pressure on body parts. Evidence has demonstrated that the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is particularly associated with defensive behavior that involves the emotional states of fear and anxiety.

Author(s): 
Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade
Ferrarese, Aline Aparecida
Terzian, Ana Luisa Bernardes
Menescal-de-Oliveira, Leda
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

GABA(A) receptors mediate both fast phasic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and slower tonic extrasynaptic inhibition. Hyperpolarizing phasic GABAergic inhibition requires the activity of neuron-specific chloride-extruding potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in adult CNS. However, the possible role of KCC2 in tonic GABAergic inhibition and the associated behaviors is unknown.

Author(s): 
Tornberg, Janne
Segerstråle, Mikael
Kulesskaya, Natalia
Voikar, Vootele
Taira, Tomi
Airaksinen, Matti S.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Rosa damascena has been found to act on central nervous system including brain. It inhibits the reactivity of the hypothalamous and pituitary systems in rat. In traditional medicine hypnotic effect of Rose is also suggested. In the present study hypnotic effect of ethanolic, aqueous and chloroformic extracts of R. damascena was investigated in mice. Hypnotic method was based on potentiation of pentobarbital induced sleeping time by extracts. Three doses of extracts (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) were injected i.p.

Author(s): 
Rakhshandah, H.
Hosseini, M.
Publication Title: 
Zhurnal Vysshe? Nervno? Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova

A defensive dominanta (stationary excitation focus) in the sensorimotor cortex of rabbits was formed by rhythmical electrodermal paw stimulation with the frequency of 0.5 Hz. After cessation of the stimulation, the state of hidden excitation was tested with acoustic stimuli, in response to which nonrhythmic activity of leg muscles increased or the leg rhythmically startled with the frequency close to that of the electrodermal stimulation.

Author(s): 
Galashina, A. G.
Kulikov, M. A.
Bogdanov, A. V.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology

The present study was designed to investigate the role of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified volatile anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneally injecting (i.p.) appropriate doses of ether, enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) injected different doses of strychnine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using the awaken test and the pain index in hot-plate test (HPPI) using the hot-plate test.

Author(s): 
Chen, Yan
Dai, Ti-Jun
Zeng, Yin-Ming
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

A series of 3-aryl amino/amino-4-aryl-5-imino-Delta(2)-1,2,4-thiadiazoline have been synthesized using an appropriate synthetic route and characterized by elemental analyses and spectral data. The anticonvulsant activity of all the synthesized compounds was evaluated against maximal electroshock induced seizures (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (ScPTZ) induced seizure models in mice. The neurotoxicity was assessed using the rotorod method.

Author(s): 
Gupta, Arun
Mishra, Pradeep
Kashaw, Sushil K.
Jatav, Varsha
Stables, J. P.
Publication Title: 
Zhurnal Vysshe? Nervno? Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova

Defensive dominanta was produced in four rabbits with electrodermal rhythmic stimulation of the left fore paw with the frequency of 0.5 Hz. During testing the dominanta with acoustical stimuli, the paw muscles responded with either a decrease in its non-rhythmic activity or rhythmic quiver with the frequency close to that of electrodermal stimulation. In intersignal periods, the paw shuddered with mean intervals of about 2 seconds.

Author(s): 
Bogdanov, A. V.
Galashina, A. G.
Kulikov, M. A.
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology

A defensive dominant was created in rabbits using rhythmic electrocutaneous stimulation of the left forelimb at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. After stimulation ended, the latent excitation state was tested using sound stimuli. Animals responded either with increases in non-rhythmic paw muscle activity or with rhythmic twitching of the paw at a frequency close to that of the electrocutaneous stimulation. After hypnotization, the incidence of rhythmic responses to the stimulation testing the dominant focus increased, while the incidence of non-rhythmic responses decreased.

Author(s): 
Galashina, A. G.
Kulikov, M. A.
Bogdanov, A. V.

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