Exceptional aging has been defined as maintenance of physical and cognitive function beyond the median lifespan despite a history of diseases and/or concurrent subclinical conditions. Since immunity is vital to individual fitness, we examined immunologic fingerprint(s) of highly functional elders. Therefore, survivors of the Cardiovascular Health Study in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA were recruited (n?=?140; mean age?=?86 years) and underwent performance testing. Blood samples were collected and examined blindly for humoral factors and T cell phenotypes.
Antibodies continuously secreted by plasma cells play a central role in humoral immune protection of the organism. These plasma cells are generated during the germinal center reaction, and it is likely that they here acquire the potential to develop into long-lived cells. To achieve longevity, these cells require factors provided by the microenvironment. Indeed, only a few of the plasmablasts arising during an immune response will differentiate into mature plasma cells, which may survive for decades in specialized survival niches in the bone marrow.
Antibody production is an important feature of the vertebrate immune system. Antibodies neutralize and clear pathogens, thereby protecting against infectious diseases. Such humoral immunity has great longevity, often persisting for the host's lifetime. Long-lived humoral immunity depends on help provided by CD4(+) T cells, namely T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which support the differentiation of antigen-specific B cells into memory and plasma cells.
Alloantibody can be a major barrier to successful organ transplantation; however, therapy to control antibody production or to alter its impact on the allograft remains limited. The goal of this review is to examine the regulatory steps that are involved in the generation of alloreactive B cells, with a specific emphasis on how known mechanisms relate to clinical situations in transplant recipients. Thus, we will examine the process of activation of mature, naÔve B cells and how this relates to de novo antibody production.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dengue virus (DENV) is considered to be the most important arthropod-borne viral disease and causes more than 100 million human infections annually. To further characterize primary DENV infection in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, or DENV-4 and clinical parameters, as well as specificity and longevity of serologic responses, were assessed. Overt clinical symptoms were not present after infection.
BACKGROUND: The leaves of Stachytarpheta cayennensis C. Rich. (Verbenaceae) have been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-malarial activities. Due to close association between inflammatory and immune responses, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of leaves extract of S. cayennensis. The combined effects of the leaves extract and artesunate, a standard antimalarial agent with immunomodulatory effects, were also evaluated. METHODS: The immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of S.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Barleria prionitis Linn. (Family: Acanthaceae), one of the important Ayurvedic medicinal plant in India, has long been used to treat variety of ailments including swellings, gout, arthritic and rheumatic disorders, nervine and skin diseases, and also acts as immunorestorative. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed to explore in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities of the iridoids fraction i.e. n-butanol fraction of methanol extract from Barleria prionitis aerial parts (IFBp).
CONTEXT: Leptadenia reticulata Linn. (Asclpiadaceae) commonly known as "dodi," is an Indian medicinal plant which is known to have ethno-medical uses such as stimulant, tonic, immunostimulant and is one of the ingredient in ayurvedic formulation called as "Chawanprash," which is widely used in India to increase the strength of immune system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study is to evaluate immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of L. reticulata L. leaves in rodents.
Mesua ferrea L. (Nagkesar) is traditionally being used for antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic and antiallergic activities. It is an ingredient of ayurvedic formulations like Brahma Rasayana and Chyavanprash which are being used to improve immunity. The present study was performed to evaluate immunomodulatory activity of mesuol isolated from M. ferrea seed oil in experimental animals.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation and articular damage. Proinflammatory cytokines, antibodies, and matrix-degrading enzymes orchestrate the pathogenic events in autoimmune arthritis. Accordingly, these mediators of inflammation are the targets of several anti-arthritic drugs. However, the prolonged use of such drugs is associated with severe adverse reactions. This limitation has necessitated the search for less toxic natural plant products that possess anti-arthritic activity.