Immunization

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: This review is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2006. Needle-related procedures are a common source of pain and distress for children. Our previous review on this topic indicated that a number of psychological interventions were efficacious in managing pediatric needle pain, including distraction, hypnosis, and combined cognitive behavioural interventions. Considerable additional research in the area has been published since that time.

Author(s): 
Uman, Lindsay S.
Birnie, Kathryn A.
Noel, Melanie
Parker, Jennifer A.
Chambers, Christine T.
McGrath, Patrick J.
Kisely, Steve R.
Publication Title: 
British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.)
Author(s): 
Doll, R.
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners

Immunisation has proved a highly effective public health policy. However, it has come under public suspicion at times, with large falls in pertussis immunizations in the 1980s and smaller falls in measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake recently. Immunisation scares have also occurred in other countries. This discussion paper explores the concepts of herd immunity, altruism, and informed consent. Historical, quantitative, and qualitative research on the sociology of immunisation is reviewed.

Author(s): 
Vernon, J. Gervase
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: This review is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2006. Needle-related procedures are a common source of pain and distress for children. Our previous review on this topic indicated that a number of psychological interventions were efficacious in managing pediatric needle pain, including distraction, hypnosis, and combined cognitive behavioural interventions. Considerable additional research in the area has been published since that time.

Author(s): 
Uman, Lindsay S.
Birnie, Kathryn A.
Noel, Melanie
Parker, Jennifer A.
Chambers, Christine T.
McGrath, Patrick J.
Kisely, Steve R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Six hens were intramuscularly (im) immunized once a week for 3 weeks using chicken egg white lysozyme (LS) as antigen. Antibody (immunoglobulin in yolk, IgY) ELISA values of 10(3)-fold diluted yolk were almost as high as 1.879 in the sixth week and maintained a value of 0.756 in the eighth week after the initial immunization treatment.

Author(s): 
Chen, Chao-Cheng
Tu, Yann-Ying
Chen, Tzy-Li
Chang, Hung-Min
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

The immunomodulatory activity of an Indian Ayurvedic medicinal preparation, Ashwagandna (Withania somnifera (L. Dunal)) was studied in mice with myelosuppression induced by one or more of the following three compounds: cyclophosphamide, azathioprin, or prednisolone. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity was carried out by hematological and serological tests. A significant modulation of immune reactivity was observed in all the three animal models used. Ashwagandha prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with all three immunosuppressive drugs tested.

Author(s): 
Ziauddin, M.
Phansalkar, N.
Patki, P.
Diwanay, S.
Patwardhan, B.
Publication Title: 
African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences

The efficacy of Stresroak--an Ayurvedic product (India) was tested in cockerel chicks. Eighty day-old chicks were randomly allocated into four groups with 20 birds per group. Group 1 received Stresroak at the recommended dosage of 1 ml/20 birds for 5 days prior to the NDV vaccinations (i/o, LaSota and Komarov). Group 2 received Stresroak at double the recommended dosage prior to vaccinations. Group 3 received no treatment but had all the afore mentioned vaccinations while Group 4 received neither treatments nor vaccinations and therefore served as the control group.

Author(s): 
Sanda, M. E.
Anene, B. M.
Owoade, A. A.
Publication Title: 
Preventive Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Some authorities are concerned that the use of complementary and alternative medications (CAM) may replace recommended preventive health practices. This study was done to determine if users of individual types of CAM were less likely to receive recommended immunizations. METHODS: We used data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey of over 23,000 adult, non-institutionalized U.S. citizens using bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine if users of individual types of CAM were less likely to receive influenza and/or pneumococcal vaccinations.

Author(s): 
Jones, Lawrence
Sciamanna, Christopher
Lehman, Erik
Publication Title: 
Pediatrics

Many families at a community clinic in Seattle reported that they were choosing not to immunize their children at the advice of practitioners of naturopathy. To learn more about this alternate form of health care, a review of the available literature on naturopathy was undertaken and interviews were conducted with individual naturopaths in the state of Washington. Naturopaths vary widely in their training, practices, and philosophy of healing. Many are opposed to routine immunization because they view immunization programs as unnatural, unnecessary, and elitist.

Author(s): 
Halper, J.
Berger, L. R.
Publication Title: 
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To describe the practice characteristics and pediatric care of homeopathic practitioners (HPs) and naturopathic doctors (NDs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive survey. SETTING: Homeopathic and naturopathic practices in Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS: Homeopathic practitioners (N = 42) and NDs (N = 23) identified from the yellow pages, regional and national society membership lists, schools, magazine advertisements, and by word-of-mouth. The response rate was 55% (23/42) for HPs and 65% (15/23) for NDs.

Author(s): 
Lee, A. C.
Kemper, K. J.

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