OBJECTIVE: Chebulagic acid (CHE) from the immature seeds of Terminalia chebula was identified from a natural product library as a potent suppressor of T cell activity. This study examined the effectiveness of CHE against the onset and progression of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in DBA/1J mice by subcutaneous immunization with bovine type II collagen on days 0 and 21. CHE was administered intraperitoneally for 3 weeks, either as prophylaxis (10 or 20 mg/kg) before disease onset or as therapy (20 mg/kg) after disease onset.
Immunodeficient mice bearing targeted mutations in the IL2rg gene and engrafted with human immune systems are effective tools for the study of human haematopoiesis, immunity, infectious disease and transplantation biology. The most robust human immune model is generated by implantation of human fetal thymic and liver tissues in irradiated recipients followed by intravenous injection of autologous fetal liver haematopoietic stem cells [often referred to as the BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) model].
Antibodies (Abs) are critical for immunity to malaria. However, Plasmodium falciparum specific Abs decline rapidly in absence of reinfection, suggesting impaired immunological memory. This study determines whether residents of Sweden that were treated for malaria following international travel maintained long-lasting malaria-specific Abs and memory B cells (MBCs).
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dengue virus (DENV) is considered to be the most important arthropod-borne viral disease and causes more than 100 million human infections annually. To further characterize primary DENV infection in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, or DENV-4 and clinical parameters, as well as specificity and longevity of serologic responses, were assessed. Overt clinical symptoms were not present after infection.
The relative avidity and titer of antibodies representing the 4 immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses (IgG1-4) reactive with Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (-LPS), streptokinase (SK) and tetanus toxoid (TT) in the sera of patients having adult periodontitis and of healthy controls were measured. Patient antibody titers to P. gingivalis and P. gingivalis-LPS were found to be significantly elevated for IgG, IgG1 (no P. gingivalis-LPS antibodies) and IgG2. The predominant antibody response to P. gingivalis and P. gingivalis-LPS occurred in the IgG2 subclass.
Telomere length and telomerase activity have received increased attention as markers of cellular aging, but the determinants of inter-individual variation in these markers are incompletely understood. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may be particularly important for telomere and telomerase dynamics due to its dramatic impact on peripheral blood lymphocyte composition, i.e., increasing the number and proportions of highly differentiated T cells that are characterized by shorter telomere length (TL) and lowered telomerase activity (TA).
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of benefit generosity and household health care financial burden on the demand for specialty drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Enrollment, claims, and benefit design information for 35 large private employers during 2000-2005. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated multivariate models of the effects of benefit generosity and household financial burden on initiation and continuation of biologic therapies.
In a prospective randomized controlled study, the possibility that children could regulate their own salivary immunoglobulins was investigated using cyberphysiologic techniques. Fifty-seven children were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group A subjects learned self-hypnosis with permission to increase immune substances in saliva as they chose; group B subjects learned self-hypnosis with specific suggestions for control of saliva immunoglobulins; group C subjects were given no instructions but received equal attention time.
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
AIM: To study the effects of artesunate (dihydroartemisinine-12-alpha-succinate, Art) on immune function in mice. METHODS: Hemolysin concentration was determined by colorimetric method. Serum IgG and C3 contents were measured by single immunodiffusion method. Percentage of lymphocyte transformation, phagocytosis percentage and phagocytic index were counted under microscope. RESULTS: Art im 75 mg kg-1 bid x 7 d decreased the humolysin-forming capacity and levels of serum IgG of mice sensitized with sheep red blood cell.
Substantial evidence indicates that antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens play a role in protection from malaria, although the precise targets and mechanisms mediating immunity remain unclear. Different malaria antigens induce distinct immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses, but the importance of different responses in protective immunity from malaria is not known and the factors determining subclass responses in vivo are poorly understood.