Immunodeficient mice bearing targeted mutations in the IL2rg gene and engrafted with human immune systems are effective tools for the study of human haematopoiesis, immunity, infectious disease and transplantation biology. The most robust human immune model is generated by implantation of human fetal thymic and liver tissues in irradiated recipients followed by intravenous injection of autologous fetal liver haematopoietic stem cells [often referred to as the BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) model].
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dengue virus (DENV) is considered to be the most important arthropod-borne viral disease and causes more than 100 million human infections annually. To further characterize primary DENV infection in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, or DENV-4 and clinical parameters, as well as specificity and longevity of serologic responses, were assessed. Overt clinical symptoms were not present after infection.
Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst is an Ayurvedic herb with antirheumatic potential. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of Bacopa monniera in treating rheumatoid arthritis using a type II collagen-induced arthritis rat model. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by immunization with bovine type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant. Bacopa monniera extract (BME) was administered after the development of arthritis from day 14 onwards. The total duration of experiment was 60 days.
CONTEXT: Immunostimulant plays an important role to prevent infections when defensive capacity of body is impaired, commonly occur with aging, cancer, diabetes, and sepsis. Kanakasava (KNK) is a polyherbal ayurvedic preparation used since ancient times for the treatment of respiratory diseases and to improve immunity. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the immunostimulating potential of KNK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunostimulating activity of KNK was evaluated by measuring immunoglobulin M (IgM) production and splenocyte proliferation in vitro.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of specific Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) activities (yoga, sitting and informal meditation, body scan) on immune function, circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 concentrations, and positive affect among older adults. DESIGN: The study design comprised longitudinal analyses of data from subjects in an 8-week MBSR program. SETTING: The study was conducted at a University-affiliated health center. SUBJECTS: This study involved 100 community-dwelling older adults.
The role of complement in antibody therapy of cancer is in general poorly understood. We used the EL4 syngeneic mouse model of metastatic lymphoma to investigate the role of complement in immunotherapy directed against GD2, a target of clinical relevance. IgG2a and IgM anti-GD2 therapy protected EL4-challenged mice from metastases and prolonged survival. Expression of CD59, an inhibitor of direct complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC), effectively protected EL4 cells from CMC in vitro but did not affect the outcome of monoclonal antibody therapy.
Cancer carbohydrate antigens have been surprisingly potent targets for immune recognition and attack by antibodies, both because of their abundance at the cell surface and their immunogenicity. Antibodies are ideally suited for eradicating pathogens from the bloodstream and from early tissue invasion. Passively administered and vaccine induced antibodies have accomplished this, eliminating circulating tumor cells and systemic or intraperitoneal micrometastases in a variety of preclinical models.
We evaluated virus-specific B and T cell responses induced by the attenuated Wa (P1AG1) human rotavirus (AttHRV) oral 2-dose vaccine with or without Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) colonization in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs. The AttHRV vaccinated and LA-fed pigs had a significantly higher magnitude of HRV-specific IFN-gamma producing CD8+ T cell responses in ileum and spleen, IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cell responses in ileum, and serum IgM, IgA and IgG antibody and virus neutralizing antibody titers compared to the AttHRV vaccinated pigs without LA colonization.
We have previously shown that immunization with SIV-, SHIV-, or HA (influenza hemagglutinin)-virus-like particles (VLPs) elicits a strong humoral immune response in mice. However, little is known about the action VLPs exert on immune effector cells, including B cells. In this study, we found that all three types of VLPs could directly bind and activate B cells in vitro. VLPs stimulated the proliferation of B220(+)IgM(+)CD43(-)CD5(-) B2 cells and their differentiation to plasma cells that preferentially produce IgG2a antibodies.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. However, there is no vaccine available and little is known about immune responses to protective antigens. We investigated antibody responses to p23, a putative vaccine candidate, in children in Bangladesh with cryptosporidiosis and diarrhea (cases) and uninfected children with diarrhea (controls), and p23 gene polymorphisms in infecting species. Serum IgM, IgG, and IgA responses to p23 were significantly greater in cases than controls after three weeks of follow-up.