OBJECTIVES: This study has intended to investigate longevity of subcutaneous fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SF-MSCs) under extensive culturing. It has also focused on optimization of culture media for them over prolonged periods in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated SF-MSCs with reference to phenotypic characterization, proliferative ability, karyotype stability and differentiation potency with early (P3) and late passage (P20) conditions, using four different media, DMEM-LG, ALPHA-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO.
CD34+ precursors in normal human bone marrow (BM) generate large numbers of dendritic cells alongside macrophages and granulocytic precursors when cultured for 12 to 14 days in c-kit ligand, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). This study reports an intermediate cell type that develops by day 6, and has the potential to differentiate into either macrophages or dendritic cells.
Despite accumulating knowledge of porcine macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) from in vitro studies, information regarding monocytes/macrophages and DCs in lymphoid tissues of enteric pathogen-infected neonatal animals in vivo is limited. In this study we evaluated the influence of commensal bacterial [two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri] colonization and rotavirus infection on distribution and frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and conventional DCs (cDCs) in ileum, spleen and blood.
Accumulating evidences support that CD4(+)CD25(high) T regulatory (Treg) cells play an essential role in controlling and preventing autoimmunity. Paradoxically, RA patients have elevated numbers of circulating CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells, however, the inflammation is still ongoing. Further identification of these CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells may contribute to a better understanding of underlying mechanisms. We show here that these CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells were composed of CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) Treg cells and activated CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(-) effector cells.
BACKGROUND: Strain-specific effects of probiotics in pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses have been well recognized. Several proinflammatory Lactobacillus strains have been shown to act as adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines. However, dose effects of probiotics in modulating immune responses are not clearly understood. This study examined the dose effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) NCFM strain on T cell immune responses to rotavirus vaccination in a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model.
OBJECTIVE: The myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors with both Mtg8(-/-) and Mtgr1(-/-) mice showing developmental and/or differentiation defects in the intestine. We sought to determine the role of MTG16 in intestinal integrity. METHODS: Baseline and stress induced colonic phenotypes were examined in Mtg16(-/-) mice. To unmask phenotypes, we treated Mtg16(-/-) mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) or infected them with Citrobacter rodentium and the colons were examined for ulceration and for changes in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation.
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacterium that has re-emerged as a facultative pathogen and can cause nosocomial diarrhea, colitis or even death. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ has been implicated in the prevention of inflammation in autoimmune and infectious diseases; however, its role in the immunoregulatory mechanisms modulating host responses to C. difficile and its toxins remains largely unknown. To characterize the role of PPARγ in C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), immunity and gut pathology, we used a mouse model of C.
Differentiation of CD4+ T cells into effector or regulatory phenotypes is tightly controlled by the cytokine milieu, complex intracellular signaling networks and numerous transcriptional regulators. We combined experimental approaches and computational modeling to investigate the mechanisms controlling differentiation and plasticity of CD4+ T cells in the gut of mice. Our computational model encompasses the major intracellular pathways involved in CD4+ T cell differentiation into T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and induced regulatory T cells (iTreg).
We have recently shown in non-human primates that caloric restriction (CR) initiated during adulthood can delay T-cell aging and preserve naïve CD8 and CD4 T cells into advanced age. An important question is whether CR can be initiated at any time in life, and whether age at the time of onset would modulate the beneficial effects of CR. In the current study, we evaluated the impact of CR started before puberty or during advanced age on T-cell senescence and compared it to the effects of CR started in early adulthood.
NK cells are a heterogenous population of innate lymphocytes with diverse functional attributes critical for early protection from viral infections. We have previously reported a decrease in influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in 6-mo-old C57BL/6 calorically restricted (CR) mice. In the current study, we extend our findings on the influence of CR on NK cell phenotype and function in the absence of infection. We demonstrate that reduced mature NK cell subsets result in increased frequencies of CD127(+) NK cells in CR mice, skewing the function of the total NK cell pool.