Transplantation of pancreatic islets, as a therapeutic modality for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), at this stage of its development, is reserved for patients with severe glycemic variability, progressive diabetic complications, and life threatening hypoglycemia unawareness, regardless of intensive insulin management.
Since 1960, clinical organ transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure to highly successful 'routine', but as technical advances have extended eligibility to more victims of end-stage organ disease, the supply of donor organs has lagged behind. Urgency of need, probability of success and ability to pay are often used to limit waiting lists; without these, as many as 124,000 transplants per year could be performed in the USA alone.
In critically reviewing the sources of evidence connecting psyche and brain with the immune system, the authors include a brief review of current knowledge of the immune system, its interactions with the neuroendocrine system, and other factors influencing its regulation. These include developmental stages, aging, rhythmicity, and a variety of exogenous influences. The need for developing further information about normal base lines is emphasized.
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected adults with low CD4 cell count have a higher risk of malaria infection and clinical malaria. We assessed the influence that HIV-1 immune suppression has on the efficacy of antimalarial treatment in adults with uncomplicated malaria. METHODS: This clinical trial included 971 Zambian adults with uncomplicated malaria. Patients were tested for HIV-1, and, if positive, a CD4 cell count was assessed. The primary outcome was recurrent parasitemia corrected by molecular genotyping within 45 days after treatment.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi = Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
AIM: to explore the variation and clinical significance of serum CTnT and CK-MB in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticid poisoning (AOPP). METHODS: 100 cases of patients with AOPP(AOPP-group) and 100 healthy subjects were studied, the serum CTnT and CK-MB level were detected using ELISA and immunosuppression methods.
CONTEXT: Anacyclus pyrethrum DC (Compositae) roots, commonly known as Pellitory root and locally as akarkara, are widely recognized in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, Ayurveda, as a 'rasayana', i.e. a plant with immunomodulatory properties. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of A. pyrethrum extract for its effect on normal and chemically suppressed immune systems in vivo. MATERIALS: Petroleum ether extract (PEE) of roots was tested at 50 and 100 mg/kg dose.
Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors. The discovery of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the major psychoactive principle in marijuana, as well as the identification of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, has led to a significant growth in research aimed at understanding the physiological functions of cannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptors include CB1, which is predominantly expressed in the brain, and CB2, which is primarily found on the cells of the immune system.
Cannabinoid receptor activation by agents such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known to trigger immune suppression. Here, we show that administration of THC in mice leads to rapid and massive expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) expressing functional arginase and exhibiting potent immunosuppressive properties both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of MDSC by THC was associated with a significant increase in granulocyte CSF. Moreover, administration of anti-granulocyte CSF Ab inhibited the induction of MDSC by THC.
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Clinical reports indicate that patients with allergy/asthma commonly have associated symptoms of anxiety/depression. Anxiety/depression can be reduced by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplementation. However, it is not known whether 5-HTP reduces allergic inflammation. Therefore, we determined whether 5-HTP supplementation reduces allergic inflammation. We also determined whether 5-HTP decreases passage of leukocytes through the endothelial barrier by regulating endothelial cell function.
BACKGROUND: Those immunocompromised by AIDS or cancer chemotherapy use marijuana to allay symptoms of their disease or treatment. Some researchers believe that marijuana may further suppress the immune system. A list of immunological hazards that may be present in marijuana was collated and assessed, and clinical recommendations regarding the use of marijuana by immunocompromised individuals were made. METHODS: Databases and other sources from 1964 to 1996 were searched using keywords (e.g., cannabinoids, cannabis, hemp, marijuana).