Immunosuppressive Agents

Publication Title: 
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology

This review provides a summary of key findings from 24 systematic reviews of atopic eczema (AE) published or indexed between 1 August 2010 and 31 December 2011, updating published summaries from previous years. Epidemiological evidence points to the protective effects of early daycare, endotoxin exposure, consumption of unpasteurized milk, and early exposure to dogs, but antibiotic use in early life may increase the risk for AE.

Author(s): 
Torley, D.
Futamura, M.
Williams, H. C.
Thomas, K. S.
Publication Title: 
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema is the commonest inflammatory skin disease of childhood, affecting 15-20% of children in the UK at any one time. Adults make up about one-third of all community cases. Moderate-to-severe atopic eczema can have a profound effect on the quality of life for both sufferers and their families.

Author(s): 
Hoare, C.
Li Wan Po, A.
Williams, H.
Publication Title: 
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology

This review provides a summary of key findings from 22 systematic reviews on atopic eczema (AE) published over the 2-year period from January 2012 to 31 December 2013, focusing on prevention and treatment of AE. For an update of systematic reviews on the epidemiology, mechanisms of disease and methodological issues, see Part 1 of this update. Based on current systematic review evidence, the most promising intervention for the prevention of AE is the use of probiotics (and possibly prebiotics) during the late stages of pregnancy and early life.

Author(s): 
Madhok, V.
Futamura, M.
Thomas, K. S.
Barbarot, S.
Publication Title: 
Aktuelle Urologie

The so-called interstitial cystitis is a chronic pain syndrome rather than a purely end organ disease of the urinary bladder. New suggestions for definitions and nomenclature take this into consideration. Since aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown a treatment of the cause is still not possible. There are neither evidence-based treatment algorithms nor a so-called standard therapy. Numerous therapeutic approaches have been tried up to now. These attempts can be divided into oral, intravesical, surgical and physical procedures.

Author(s): 
Binder, I.
Rossbach, G.
van Ophoven, A.
Publication Title: 
Aktuelle Urologie

The so-called interstitial cystitis is a chronic pain syndrome rather than a purely end organ disease of the urinary bladder. New suggestions for definitions and nomenclature take this into consideration. Since aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown a treatment of the cause is still not possible. There are neither evidence-based treatment algorithms nor a so-called standard therapy. Numerous therapeutic approaches have been tried up to now. These attempts can be divided into oral, intravesical, surgical and physical procedures.

Author(s): 
Binder, I.
Rossbach, G.
van Ophoven, A.
Publication Title: 
Antiviral Research

Hot water extracts of four traditional herbs, Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Terminalia chebula and Rhus javanica, which have been shown to have anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in vivo, were examined for anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity in vitro and in vivo in this study. They inhibited replication of human CMV and murine CMV (MCMV) in vitro. These anti-CMV activities in vivo were examined in an MCMV infection model using immunosuppressed mice.

Author(s): 
Yukawa, T. A.
Kurokawa, M.
Sato, H.
Yoshida, Y.
Kageyama, S.
Hasegawa, T.
Namba, T.
Imakita, M.
Hozumi, T.
Shiraki, K.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

The extension of both median and maximum lifespan and the suppression of age-related diseases in laboratory animals by reduced food intake, i.e., calorie restriction (CR) are regarded as hallmarks of CR's anti-aging action. The diverse efficacy of CR to counteract aging effects and its experimental reproducibility has made it the gold standard of many aging intervention studies of recent years.

Author(s): 
Chung, K. W.
Kim, D. H.
Park, M. H.
Choi, Y. J.
Kim, N. D.
Lee, J.
Yu, B. P.
Chung, H. Y.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Accumulation of tau is a critical event in several neurodegenerative disorders, collectively known as tauopathies, which include Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Pathological tau is hyperphosphorylated and aggregates to form neurofibrillary tangles. The molecular mechanisms leading to tau accumulation remain unclear and more needs to be done to elucidate them. Age is a major risk factor for all tauopathies, suggesting that molecular changes contributing to the aging process may facilitate tau accumulation and represent common mechanisms across different tauopathies.

Author(s): 
Caccamo, Antonella
MagrÏ, Andrea
Medina, David X.
Wisely, Elena V.
LÛpez-Aranda, Manuel F.
Silva, Alcino J.
Oddo, Salvatore
Publication Title: 
BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex heterogeneous disease, posing challenges to clinical trials. As in other autoimmune diseases, B-lymphocytes play a central role in lupus pathogenesis. The finding that selection and survival of B cells are controlled by a variety of signals, including those provided by the longevity factor BAFF (B-cell activating factor), also called BLyS (B-lymphocyte stimulator), led to preclinical trials that revealed that BAFF represents a promising therapeutic target for human lupus. Belimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against BAFF.

Author(s): 
Zouali, Moncef
Uy, Eugene A.
Publication Title: 
Drug Discovery Today

Numerous mutations increase lifespan in diverse organisms from worms to mammals. Most genes that affect longevity encode components of the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway, thus revealing potential targets for pharmacological intervention. I propose that one target, TOR itself, stands out, simply because its inhibitor (rapamycin) is a non-toxic, well-tolerated drug that is suitable for everyday oral administration.

Author(s): 
Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

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