BACKGROUND: Studies in South-East Asia have suggested that early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate (AS) and mefloquine (MQ) combination therapy may reduce the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the progression of MQ resistance. METHODS: The effectiveness of a fixed-dose combination of AS and MQ (ASMQ) in reducing malaria transmission was tested in isolated communities of the Juruá valley in the Amazon region.Priority municipalities within the Brazilian Legal Amazon area were selected according to pre-specified criteria.
BACKGROUND: In 2004, Togo adopted a regional strategy for malaria control that made use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), followed by the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Community health workers (CHWs) became involved in 2007. In 2010, the impact of the implementation of these new malaria control strategies had not yet been evaluated. This study sought to assess the trends of malaria incidence and mortality due to malaria in Est Mono district from 2005 to 2010.
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors show activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. We hypothesized that the incidence of malaria in HIV-infected children would be lower among children receiving lopinavir-ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) than among those receiving nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART.
Despite the protection provided by several factors, including maternal antibodies, the burden of malaria in young infants may be higher than previously thought. Infants with congenital or neonatal malaria may have a different clinical presentation than older children, and diagnosis may be confused with other neonatal diseases due to an overlap of clinical manifestations. In addition, there is little information on the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy in young infants.
BACKGROUND: The burden of malaria has decreased in parts of Africa following the scaling up of control interventions. However, similar data are limited from high transmission settings. METHODS: A cohort of 100 children, aged six weeks to 10 months of age, were enrolled in an area of high malaria transmission intensity and followed through 48 months of age.
BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of infected individuals are asymptomatic, constituting a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. This study evaluated the impact of screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum. METHODS: Eighteen villages were randomized (1:1) to study arms and inhabitants participated in four community screening campaigns: three before the rainy season ~1 month apart, and the fourth after the rains at ~12 months.
BACKGROUND: To better understand trends in the burden of malaria and their temporal relationship to control activities, a survey was conducted to assess reported cases of malaria and malaria control activities in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe. METHODS: Data on reported malaria cases were abstracted from available records at all three district hospitals, three rural hospitals and 25 rural health clinics in Mutasa District from 2003 to 2011.
BACKGROUND: The impact of the age of first Plasmodium falciparum infection on the rate of acquisition of immunity to malaria and on the immune correlates of protection has proven difficult to elucidate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using monthly chemoprophylaxis with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate was conducted to modify the age of first P. falciparum erythrocytic exposure in infancy and assess antibodies and malaria risk over two years.
BACKGROUND: The recent decline in malaria incidence in many African countries has been attributed to the provision of prompt and effective anti-malarial treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and to the widespread distribution of long-lasting, insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs). At a malaria vaccine-testing site in Bandiagara, Mali, ACT was introduced in 2004, and LLINs have been distributed free of charge since 2007 to infants after they complete the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) schedule and to pregnant women receiving antenatal care.
Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement.