Income

Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Utilizing data from the nationwide Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), this paper analyzes health lifestyles in Russia. Heavy alcohol use and smoking, a high-fat diet, and lack of leisure-time exercise are the principal culprits in fostering high rates of heart disease and other causes of premature mortality. This is especially the situation for middle-age, working-class males whose mortality is greater than any other segment of society.

Author(s): 
Cockerham, W. C.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

To date, there are few known predictors of stress-induced eating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether physiological and psychological variables are related to eating after stress. Specifically, we hypothesized that high cortisol reactivity in response to stress may lead to eating after stress, given the relations between cortisol with both psychological stress and mechanisms affecting hunger. To test this, we exposed fifty-nine healthy pre-menopausal women to both a stress session and a control session on different days.

Author(s): 
Epel, E.
Lapidus, R.
McEwen, B.
Brownell, K.
Publication Title: 
Appetite

Food insecurity is linked to higher weight gain in pregnancy, as is dietary restraint. We hypothesized that pregnant women exposed to marginal food insecurity, and who reported dietary restraint before pregnancy, will paradoxically show the greatest weight gain. Weight outcomes were defined as total kilograms, observed-to-recommended weight gain ratio, and categorized as adequate, inadequate or excessive weight gain based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A likelihood ratio test assessed the interaction between marginal food insecurity and dietary restraint and found significant.

Author(s): 
Laraia, Barbara
Epel, Elissa
Siega-Riz, Anna Maria
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

In the 1950's, many experts believed hyperkinesis was a neurotic reaction to inner conflicts arising from early family experiences. In the 1990's, many experts believed ADHD to be 'genetic' (without a mechanistic explanation of what that meant). Both views appear naÔve today in a scientific world grappling with the complexity of highly plastic gene expression, gene x environment interplay, and epigenetic, context-dependent emergence of psychopathology.

Author(s): 
Nigg, Joel T.
Craver, Lindsay
Publication Title: 
Modern Healthcare

In 2000, Bon Secours Health System began a growth spurt that added eight hospitals, spreading its operations across nine states. But now it's a different story; since last November the system has announced plans or deals to sell facilities in Florida and Virginia, and leave New Jersey entirely. Incoming CEO Richard Statuto, left, faces a handful of challenges. "We need to determine how effective they've been at right-sizing their organization," a Standard & Poor's analyst says.

Author(s): 
Evans, Melanie
Publication Title: 
Modern Healthcare

The U.S. Catholic healthcare system is healthy financially, but providers are warily expecting cuts in federal reimbursement. Large systems have worked to become more efficient and profitable, and those efforts are paying off. "We are doing well. We've continued to improve our operating margins," says Kris Zimmer, left, an executive at SSM Health Care.

Author(s): 
Barr, Paul
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns.

Author(s): 
Boehm, Julia K.
Chen, Ying
Williams, David R.
Ryff, Carol
Kubzansky, Laura D.
Publication Title: 
Shinrigaku Kenkyu: The Japanese Journal of Psychology

The purpose of this study was to investigate recent changes in marital norm and reality in middle-aged couples, and how marital reality, as perceived by oneself, was associated with their demographic variables, as well as their marital satisfaction. A questionnaire was administered, and 277 pairs of middle-aged, nuclear-family couples participated. Main findings were as follows. First, factor analysis of marital reality variables extracted three factors: love each other, respect for the husband's life style, and respect for wife's life style.

Author(s): 
Kashiwagi, Keiko
Hirayama, Junko
Publication Title: 
The journal of nursing research: JNR

This descriptive phenomenological study was designed to explore the life experiences of 14 Taiwanese first-time expectant fathers while their wives were in the third trimester of pregnancy. The authors used unstructured interviews to obtain the data from each participant. Data were analyzed by Colaizzi ' s (1978) method as a qualitative content analysis. In addition, the researcher used the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985) to enhance the rigorousness of this study.

Author(s): 
Kao, Chien-Huei
Long, Ann
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Many studies are now documenting the circumstances of people living with HIV/AIDS in different parts of the world. We know an increasing amount about the experiences of women who make up the majority of those infected in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, very few researchers have examined the lives of female migrants from the region living with HIV. This article begins to fill that gap by exploring the situation of 62 women from different parts of Africa receiving treatment from the National Health Service in London.

Author(s): 
Doyal, Lesley
Anderson, Jane

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