We investigated the effects of the water soluble fraction of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) (WFTC) on systemic and local anaphylaxis. WFTC administered 1h before compound 48/80 injection inhibited compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock 100% with doses of 0.01-1.0 g/kg. When WFTC was administered 5 or 10 min after compound 48/80 injection, the mortality also decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was inhibited by 63.5+/-7.8% by oral administration of WFTC (1.0 g/kg).
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND: R-etomidate possesses unique desirable properties but potently suppresses adrenocortical function. Consequently, efforts are being made to define structure-activity relationships with the goal of designing analogues with reduced adrenocortical toxicity. The authors explored the pharmacological impact of modifying etomidate's chiral center using R-etomidate, S-etomidate, and two achiral etomidate analogues (cyclopropyl etomidate and dihydrogen etomidate).
A liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectroscopy method for the quantification of artemisinin in human heparinised plasma has been developed and validated. The method uses Oasis HLB mu-elution solid phase extraction 96-well plates to facilitate a high throughput of 192 samples a day. Artesunate (internal standard) in a plasma-water solution was added to plasma (50 microL) before solid phase extraction.
Isolation conditions of immunoglobulin in egg yolk (IgY) were optimized by the addition of various levels of Na-alginate (Alg), lambda-carrageenan (lambda-Cg), Na-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and pectin (PC) to 6-fold diluted yolk. The mixtures were then reacted at pH 4.0-6.0 for 30 min. The optimal isolation conditions of IgY for Alg, lambda-Cg, and CMC were at the 0.1% level and at pH 5.0, while those for PC were at the 0.15% level and at the same pH.
Areca cattechu Linn is commonly known as areca nut or betel nut. It is a very widely cultivated plant in eastern countries like India, Bangladesh, Ceylon, Malaya, the Philippines and Japan. The importance of this nut is due to its use for chewing purposes. It had an important place as a pharmaceutical in Ayurveda--the ancient Indian system of medicine--also in the Chinese medicinal practices. The pharmaceutical importance of areca nut is due to the presence of an alkaloid, arecoline. Synthetic arecoline hydrobromide is also shown to possess numerous pharmacological properties.
Ocimum sanctum (family Lamiaceae) is a reputed drug of Ayurveda, commonly known as Tulasi. In the present work, we quantified 4 marker compounds, viz., eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, from the leaf of green and black varieties of O. sanctum using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with densitometry.
Because Ayurvedic herbal preparations contain a myriad of compounds in complex matrixes, it is difficult to establish quality control standards for raw materials and to standardize finished Ayurvedic drugs. A novel, accurate, and valid fingerprint method was developed using HPLC for quality control of a traditional Ayurvedic Arjuna churna formulation, which is used as a cardiotonic drug.
A sensitive, simple, rapid, and efficient HPTLC method was developed and validated for the analysis of catechin in marketed Ayurvedic oil formulations containing Acacia catechu. Chromatography of methanolic-0.1% formic acid (7:3, v/v) extracts of these formulations was performed on silica gel 60 F254 aluminum-backed TLC plates of 0.2 mm layer thickness. The plate was developed up to 85 mm with the ternary-mobile phase chloroform-acetone-0.1% formic acid (7.7 + 1.5 + 0.8%, v/v/v) at 22 +/- 2 degrees C with 20 min of chamber saturation.
The oxygen status of skin is a controversial topic. Skin is radiosensitive, suggesting it is well-oxygenated. However, it can be further sensitized with nitroimidazole drugs, implying that it is partially hypoxic. Skin oxygen levels are difficult to measure with either electrodes or the hypoxia-monitoring agent (3)H-misonidazole. For the latter, binding has previously been reported to be high in murine skin, but this could be attributed to either non-oxygen-dependent variations in nitroreductase activity, drug metabolism, and/or actual oxygen gradients.