Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery

Publication Title: 
Brain Research Bulletin

Interactions between neurons and astrocytes play a critical role in the central nervous system homeostasis. Cyperus rotundus (family: Cyperaceae), a traditional Indian medicinal herb, used as nervine tonic and nootropic in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effect of total oligomeric flavonoids (TOFs), prepared from C. rotundus, in rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Male Sprague Dawley rats (290-340g) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h and reperfusion for 70h.

Author(s): 
Sunil, A. G.
Kesavanarayanan, K. S.
Kalaivani, P.
Sathiya, S.
Ranju, V.
Priya, R. Jyothi
Pramila, B.
Paul, F. D. Solomon
Venkhatesh, J.
Babu, C. Saravana
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience

Soy phytoestrogens have been proposed as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy and have demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects in the brain. We have shown that a high soy diet significantly reduces infarct size following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we tested the hypothesis that a high soy diet would attenuate programmed cell death after stroke.

Author(s): 
Lovekamp-Swan, T.
Glendenning, M.
Schreihofer, D. A.
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience Letters

Estrogen is a powerful endogenous and exogenous neuroprotective agent in animal models of brain injury, including focal cerebral ischemia. Although this protection has been demonstrated in several different treatment and injury paradigms, it has not been demonstrated in focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraparenchymal endothelin-1 injection, a model with many advantages over other models of experimental focal ischemia. Reproductively mature female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and divided into placebo and estradiol-treated groups.

Author(s): 
Glendenning, Michele L.
Lovekamp-Swan, Tara
Schreihofer, Derek A.
Publication Title: 
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ginkgo biloba extracts are now prescribed in several countries for their reported health benefits, particularly for medicinal properties in the brain. The standardized Ginkgo extract, EGb761, has been reported to protect neurons against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. METHODS: To characterize the oral consumption of EGb761 in transient ischemia, we performed the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) filament model in wild-type and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) knockouts.

Author(s): 
Saleem, Sofiyan
Zhuang, Hean
Biswal, Shyam
Christen, Yves
Doré, Sylvain
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Disease

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects brain against ischemic injury by activating specific mechanisms. Our goal was to determine if the inducible heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is required for such protection. IPC before transient or permanent ischemia reduced cortical infarct volumes by 57.4% and 33.9%, respectively at 48 h in wildtype adult mice. Interestingly, IPC failed to protect the HO1 gene deleted mice against permanent ischemic brain injury.

Author(s): 
Zeynalov, Emil
Shah, Zahoor A.
Li, Rung-chi
Doré, Sylvain
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism: Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Cerebral ischemia-elicited inflammatory responses are driven by inflammatory mediators produced both by central (e.g., neurons and microglia) and infiltrating peripheral immune cells (e.g., macrophage/monocyte), and contribute to the evolution of tissue injury. A ubiquitous molecule, spermine, is released from injured cells, and counter-regulates release of various proinflammatory cytokines. However, the spermine-mediated anti-inflammatory activities are dependent on the availability of fetuin-A, a liver-derived negative acute-phase protein.

Author(s): 
Wang, Haichao
Li, Wei
Zhu, Shu
Li, Jianhua
D'Amore, Jason
Ward, Mary F.
Yang, Huan
Wu, Rongqian
Jahnen-Dechent, Willi
Tracey, Kevin J.
Wang, Ping
Sama, Andrew E.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is a popular model in experimental stroke research and causes prominent ischemic damage in the forebrain. To characterize metabolic changes induced by MCAO, we have induced permanent MCAO in mice that were implanted with a microdialysis probe in either striatum or hippocampus. Immediately after the onset of ischemia, glucose levels dropped to <10% of basal values in the striatum while they dropped to 50%, and recovered thereafter, in hippocampus.

Author(s): 
Kiewert, Cornelia
Mdzinarishvili, Alexander
Hartmann, Joachim
Bickel, Ulrich
Klein, Jochen
Publication Title: 
Experimental Neurology

Epidemiological and experimental reports have linked mild-to-moderate wine and/or grape consumption to a lowered incidence of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular risk. This study revealed that resveratrol, an enriched bioactive polyphenol in red wine, selectively induces heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner in cultured mouse cortical neuronal cells and provides neuroprotection from free-radical or excitotoxicity damage.

Author(s): 
Sakata, Yoshihito
Zhuang, Hean
Kwansa, Herman
Koehler, Raymond C.
Doré, Sylvain
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism: Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Epidemiologic studies have shown that foods rich in polyphenols, such as flavanols, can lower the risk of ischemic heart disease; however, the mechanism of protection has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigated whether epicatechin (EC), a flavanol in cocoa and tea, is protective against brain ischemic damage in mice. Wild-type mice pretreated orally with 5, 15, or 30 mg/kg EC before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) had significantly smaller brain infarcts and decreased neurologic deficit scores (NDS) than did the vehicle-treated group.

Author(s): 
Shah, Zahoor A.
Li, Rung-chi
Ahmad, Abdullah S.
Kensler, Thomas W.
Yamamoto, Masayuki
Biswal, Shyam
Doré, Sylvain
Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)

Stroke causes ischemic brain injury and is a leading cause of neurological disability and death. There is, however, no promising therapy to protect the brain from ischemic stress to date. Here we show an exciting finding that optimal electroacupuncture (EA) effectively protects the brain from ischemic injury. The experiments were performed on rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Fei
Guo, Jingchun
Cheng, Jieshi
Wu, Gencheng
Xia, Ying

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