Infection Control

Publication Title: 
British Journal of Nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)

Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is a major patient safety concern and is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased healthcare costs. Prevention and control requires a multi-modal approach, but the individual's accountability and rigorous application of standard infection prevention and control behaviours is at its core. The third instalment of the epic3 guidance ( Loveday et al, 2014a ) provided the evidence and advanced the importance of hand-hygiene behaviour, the use of non-sterile gloves and environmental cleanliness.

Author(s): 
Cole, Mark
Publication Title: 
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

We introduce a mindful evidence-based practice model to operationalize mindfulness to improve bedside infection prevention practices. Using catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention as an example, we illustrate how clinicians can be more mindful about appropriate catheter indications and timely catheter removal.

Author(s): 
Kiyoshi-Teo, Hiroko
Krein, Sarah L.
Saint, Sanjay
Publication Title: 
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety

BACKGROUND: Eliminating nosocomial infections was identified as one of eight priorities for action for Ascension Health. St. John Hospital and Medical Center (SJHMC), and St. Vincent's Hospital (STV), designated alpha sites, developed best practices for the prevention of catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSIs) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), respectively.

Author(s): 
Berriel-Cass, Dorine
Adkins, Frank W.
Jones, Polly
Fakih, Mohamad G.
Publication Title: 
PLoS biology

When we contract an infection, we typically feel sick and behave accordingly. Symptoms of sickness behavior (SB) include anorexia, hypersomnia, depression, and reduced social interactions. SB affects species spanning from arthropods to vertebrates, is triggered nonspecifically by viruses, bacteria, and parasites, and is orchestrated by a complex network of cytokines and neuroendocrine pathways; clearly, it has been naturally selected. Nonetheless, SB seems evolutionarily costly: it promotes starvation and predation and reduces reproductive opportunities. How could SB persist?

Author(s): 
Shakhar, Keren
Shakhar, Guy
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Current Uganda National Malaria treatment guidelines recommend parasitological confirmation either by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). However, the cost-effectiveness of these strategies has not been assessed at rural operational primary care centres. METHODS: Three health centres (HCs) were randomized to three diagnostic arms (microscopy, RDT and presumptive diagnosis) in a district of low and another of high malaria transmission intensities in Uganda.

Author(s): 
Batwala, Vincent
Magnussen, Pascal
Hansen, Kristian S.
Nuwaha, Fred
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)

Aromatherapy is often misunderstood and consequently somewhat marginalized. Because of a basic misinterpretation, the integration of aromatherapy into UK hospitals is not moving forward as quickly as it might. Aromatherapy in UK is primarily aimed at enhancing patient care or improving patient satisfaction, and it is frequently mixed with massage.

Author(s): 
Buckle, Jane
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition

Oil massage of newborns has been practised for generations in the Indian sub-continent; however, oils may vary from potentially beneficial, e.g. sunflower seed oil, to potentially toxic, e.g. mustard oil. The study was carried out to gain insights into oil-massage practices and acceptability of skin barrier-enhancing emollients in young, preterm Bangladeshi neonates. Preterm infants of <33 weeks gestational age were randomized to high-linoleate sunflower seed oil, Aquaphor Original Emollient Ointment, or the comparison group (usual care).

Author(s): 
Ahmed, A. S. M. Nawshad Uddin
Saha, Samir K.
Chowdhury, M. A. K. Azad
Law, Paul A.
Black, Robert E.
Santosham, Mathuram
Darmstadt, Gary L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition

Topical application of natural oils is practised routinely in many countries and may either improve skin barrier function and health or have detrimental cutaneous and systemic effects, depending on the composition of the oil. Little literature on the epidemiology, practice, and perceptions of traditional neonatal oil massage is available. This study was undertaken to gain insights into the epidemiology, practice, and perceptions regarding traditional oil massage of Bangladeshi neonates.

Author(s): 
Darmstadt, Gary L.
Saha, Samir K.
Publication Title: 
Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association

In summary, I have addressed 5 key issues concerning vaccines today. First is the essentially empiric nature of vaccinology. Vaccinology is not a rational science. Each idea must be tested by experiment. This need for trial and error experimentation is a substantial barrier to new vaccines. The proven track record of existing vaccines to eradicate disease, to reduce occurrence of disease, reduce human suffering and contain health care spending--when coupled with the potential for new discoveries against significant disease targets--is unparalleled by other therapeutic areas.

Author(s): 
Douglas, R. G.
Publication Title: 
Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde

Vaccinations are the most effective measures in public health. In the Netherlands after the second world war the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases were a great problem. Nowadays these diseases are gone or reduced at a minimal level and for the greater part under control. The Dutch National Vaccination Programme aims at 10 infectious diseases. In the Netherlands there has always been a relatively small group of religious people who live together and reject vaccinations.

Author(s): 
Rümke, H. C.
Visser, H. K.

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