Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death. The major theories of aging are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of age-related physiological changes. However, a global view of them is needed when debating of a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects.
The importance of a healthy diet to living well is well recognized. A growing array of experimental, epidemiological, and clinical studies have revealed an association between pro-inflammatory responses and the progression of numerous serious disease states, including the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Further studies have established a "diet/genetic interaction" that further modulates markers of inflammation, producing both positive and negative effects, depending on the net changes in gene expression.
In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in unsaturated essential fatty acids as they form the framework for the organism's cell membranes, particularly the neurones in the brain, are involved in the energy-transformation process, regulate the information flows between cells.
The Indo-Tibetan tradition claims that proficiency in the suggested longevity practices of meditation, diet, and physical exercise (yoga), will result in profound anti-aging, stress-mediating and health enhancing effects. Western biomedical research has begun to demonstrate that the psychobiological states induced and cultivated by cognitive behavioral practices which are emblematic of those contained within the Indo-Tibetan tradition (hypnosis, meditation, visualization, systematic relaxation), indeed do have a profound impact on the body's protective and regulatory systems.
The aging process is one of the best examples of the effects of a deterioration of homeostasis, since aging is accompanied by an impairment of the physiological systems including the homeostatic systems such as the immune system. We propose an integrative theory of aging providing answers to the how (oxidation), where first (mitochondria of differentiated cells) and why (pleiotropic genes) this process occurs.
Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic diseases are known to be associated with a reduction in life span. In the presence of insulin resistance, insulin signaling is selectively impaired, contributing to longevity shortening. Insulin indeed activates a complex web of intracellular downstream pathways, which are involved in mechanisms regulating longevity, primarily affecting cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin resistance promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and favors a pro-inflammatory milieu, both these conditions playing a critical role in the reduction of life span.
The beneficial effects of calorie restriction diet in extending lifespan and preventing diseases have long been recognized. Recent genetic and molecular studies in model organisms began to uncover the molecular regulation of calorie restriction response, with the gene SIR2 playing an essential role. This article summarizes the latest development on how mammalian SIR2 homologs coordinately regulate the calorie restriction response.
What the World needs is an integrated and sustainable food policy that makes the best and most appropriate use of the technologies at our disposal to promote health and help prevent disease. Diet induced diseases account for the largest burden of chronic illnesses and health problems Worldwide. Historically a lack of knowledge about human nutritional requirements (including for the brain) helped promote diet induced disease. The scientific knowledge currently exists to help prevent many of the current deficiencies and imbalances in human diet.
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan through a reduction in oxidative stress, delays the onset of morbidity and prolongs lifespan. We previously reported that long-term CR hastened clinical onset, disease progression and shortened lifespan, while transiently improving motor performance in G93A mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that shows increased free radical production.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
BACKGROUND: Aging is a complex multifactorial process characterized by accumulation of deleterious changes in cells and tissues, progressive deterioration of structural integrity and physiological function across multiple organ systems, and increased risk of death. METHODS: We conducted a review of the scientific literature on the relationship of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with aging. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of bioactive molecules that are formed by the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.