Potential living organ donors who describe religious motivations as the basis for their donation, particularly in the absence of an emotional or genetic connection to the intended recipient, raise challenges for the transplant team who are more comfortable in assessing relational motivations than religious ones. This article provides a composite case scenario to illustrate some of the biases that may interfere with the assessment of the donor motivated by religious altruism and how religious altruism may be pathologized.
This article considers how we should frame the ethical issues raised by current proposals for large-scale genebanks with on-going links to medical and lifestyle data, such as the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council's 'UK Biobank'. As recent scandals such as Alder Hey have emphasised, there are complex issues concerning the informed consent of donors that need to be carefully considered.
Almost 60,000 people in the United States with end stage renal disease are waiting for a kidney transplant. Because of the scarcity of organs from deceased donors live kidney donors have become a critical source of organs; in 2001, for the first time in recent decades, the number of live kidney donors exceeded the number of deceased donors.
Many challenging ethical questions come with the scientific efforts to understand the nature and treatment of schizophrenia. The empirical study of ethical aspects of schizophrenia research has sought to clarify and resolve many of these questions. In this article we provide an overview of the existing data-based literature on schizophrenia research ethics and outline directions for future inquiry.
The growing need for organ and tissue transplants has led a number of states to enforce a policy that views a donor's declared intent to be an organ donor as legally binding. This allows health officials to harvest organs without the permission of the next of kin. Legally binding consent is controversial because of concerns that it may anger family members, lead to negative publicity, and discourage potential donors. We use interviews and a pooled time-series data set of cadaveric donation rates in U.S. states to evaluate the effectiveness of this policy.
The Indian Law on Human Organ and Tissue transplantation protects the interests and preserves the lives of both the donor as well as the recipient patient. An issue arises as to the relationship of others with one's body or parts thereof especially one's cadaver. The posessory rights of the cadaver, property rights in the human corpse will be discussed in this paper. The ethical issues involved in altruism give rise to number of contradictions on which this paper focuses.
Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Concern about the ethics of clinical drug trials research on patients and healthy volunteers has been the subject of significant ethical analysis and policy development--protocols are reviewed by Research Ethics Committees and subjects are protected by informed consent procedures. More recently attention has begun to be focused on DNA banking for clinical and pharmacogenetics research.
Scholars have debated the role that altruistic considerations play--and should play--in recruitment and decision-making processes for clinical trials. Little empirical data are available to support their various perspectives. We analyzed 140 audiotaped pediatric informed consent sessions, of which 95 (68%) included at least one discussion of how participation in a cancer clinical trial might benefit: 1) the pursuit of scientific knowledge generally; 2) other children with cancer specifically; and 3) "the future" and other vaguely defined recipients.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Inducements, incentives, reimbursements and payment to subjects for participation in research projects raise many practical, professional and philosophical issues for nurses. Nurses are enjoined, either formally as research co-participants or informally as patients' professional carers, in any research which involves their patients. This role inescapably brings significant ethical obligations, which include those of bioethical audit.
BACKGROUND: Informed consent is regarded as a contract between autonomous and equal parties and requires the elements of information disclosure, understanding, voluntariness and consent. The validity of informed consent for critically ill patients has been questioned. Little is known about how these patients experience the process of consent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore critically ill patients' experience with the principle of informed consent in a clinical trial and their ability to give valid informed consent.