Analgesia and hypnosis are two separate entities and should result in distinct assessment and management for patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Those patients are exposed to moderate-severe pain and they are likely to remember pain as one bothersome experience. Any cause of patient discomfort is sought with the priority given to pain and adequate analgesia. Assessing pain must rely upon the use of clinical scoring systems, although these instruments are still underused in ICU.
To evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of propofol during recovery after total intravenous anesthesia, 20 female patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied. In 10 patients (Group B) the propofol infusion was supplemented with an epidural block with bupivacaine to evaluate the relation between the blood concentration of propofol and various pharmacodynamic end-points. The remaining 10 patients (Group A) received an alfentanil infusion intravenously instead of the epidural block to assess the dynamic interactions of alfentanil and propofol.
BACKGROUND: We studied the effect of variable doses of ketamine on the endpoints of hypnosis, e.g., unresponsiveness to verbal commands (UVC), loss of eyelash reflex (LER), and inhibition of body movement response with or without sneezing to nasal membrane stimulation (INBMR), and processed EEG variables, e.g., bispectral index (BIS), 95% spectral edge frequency (SEF) and median frequency (MF) during propofol infusion.
We studied the movement response to skin incision in 68 adult (males/females) ASA I-II patients receiving propofol +/- fentanyl intravenous anaesthesia using the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency monitoring with an A-1050 EEG monitor.
INTRODUCTION: The Narcotrend is a new EEG monitor designed to measure the hypnotic component of anaesthesia; however, a major clinical evaluation is still missing. This prospective multicentre study was designed to investigate the feasibility of Narcotrend monitoring in a large number of patients under different clinical conditions and to define its impact on recovery times after propofol-based total intravenous anaesthesia.
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is a balance between hypnosis and analgesia. We investigated whether an increase in remifentanil blood concentration would reduce the amount of propofol required to maintain a comparable level of anaesthesia in 60 patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. METHODS: Patients were allocated randomly to receive remifentanil to a target blood concentration of 2 ng ml(-1) (low), 4 ng ml(-1) (medium), or 8 ng ml(-1) (high), administered by target-controlled infusion (TCI).
BACKGROUND: Target-controlled infusions (TCI) are used to simplify administration and increase precision of i.v. drugs during general anaesthesia. However, there is a limited relationship between preset targets and measured concentrations of drugs and between measured concentrations and measures of brain function, such as the bispectral index (BIS). METHODS: We set out to evaluate the performance of TCI devices for propofol (Diprifusor) and remifentanil (Remifusor, prototype), during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 21 patients.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blinded, prospective study compared the effects of clonidine, esmolol or alfentanil on the level of hypnosis and haemodynamic responses to intravenous induction of anaesthesia and endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Forty-five patients scheduled for elective surgery were allotted to one of three groups. They were given either alfentanil 3 microg kg(-1) min(-1) (n = 15); esmolol 1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) (n = 16) or clonidine 3 microg kg(-1) (n = 14) as a 10 min infusion.
Spectral Entropy (SpEn) is an alternative tool to the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring depth of hypnosis. SpEn measures response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). This open-label prospective study was designed to evaluate SpEn and BIS in 20 patients undergoing elective supratentorial neurosurgery with craniotomy and resection of brain tumors. SpEn and BIS were obtained continuously by Datex Ohmeda M-entropy module S/5 (Helsinki, Finland) and Aspect Medical System BIS (Newton), respectively.
Two groups of tinnitus patients (n=93) were recruited, one of which was treated with standard infusion therapy and further acute medical intervention, while the other obtained an additional psychotherapeutic intervention. Questionnaires and interviews were taken at beginning of the treatment, and 9 days and 3 years after treatment. The accompanying psychotherapeutic intervention consisted primarily of client-centered counseling, guided relaxation techniques from clinical hypnosis, and some standard and tinnitus-related methods for a better coping with stress.