Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
The influence of intraperitoneal administration of disulfiram on the serotonin (5HT) turnover and the brain sensitivity to barbiturates were investigated in rats. Treatment of the animals with 200 mg/kg disulfiram resulted in the prolongation of duration of barbiturate-induced hypnosis. This indication and increment of the brain sensitivity to barbiturates after disulfiram treatment. Under the identical condition, disulfiram caused both the reduction of turnover of 5HT and the elevation of 5HT levels, although this effect was less potent than that of phenobarbital.
Diethyl maleate (DEM, 600 mg kg-1 i.p.) significantly potentiated hexobarbitone hypnosis and lowered plasma hexobarbitone level on awakening. Sleeping time following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of phenobarbitone was also prolonged by DEM treatment. When administered to DEM-treated rats, L-tryptophan (50 mg kg-1 i.p.) significantly potentiated hexobarbitone hypnosis, although alone it had no effect in control rats.
Long Sleep (LS) and Short Sleep (SS) mice were used in this study to investigate the interaction between ethanol and taurine. Sleep time (hypnosis) was selected as an index of ethanol-induced central nervous system depression. In order to achieve a similar degree of central nervous system depression with ethanol, SS and LS mice received 5.3 and 3.0 g/kg, IP, of ethanol, respectively.
The potential influence of the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PrS) on barbiturate-induced hypnosis was tested in rats. PrS, when injected intracerebroventricularly or intraperitoneally, significantly shortened the sleep-time produced by pentobarbital. The results suggest an important physiological and pharmacological role for PrS in the regulation of CNS excitability.
Previously, we demonstrated that dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2 agonist, produces a hypnotic-anesthetic response in rats via activation of central alpha 2 adrenoceptors and that this response could be enhanced by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. In the current experiment we investigated whether central alpha 1 adrenoceptor stimulation antagonizes the alpha 2 adrenoceptor-mediated hypnotic response.
The effect of the GABAA antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin, in the hot plate and writhing tests in mice and the paw-pressure test in rats was assessed. Subconvulsant doses of bicuculline (1.3-4 mumol kg-1, s.c.) or picrotoxin (0.8-2.5 mumol kg-1, s.c.) induced a dose-related increase in latency of licking in the hot plate test in mice, whereas subconvulsant doses of strychnine and thiosemicarbazide (0.9 and 6 mg kg-1, s.c. respectively), did not modify the threshold to thermal stimuli in mice.
Two new GABA derivatives, 1 and 2, were synthesized and tested for their capacity to display CNS activity, which was assessed by determining the effects on the duration of pentobarbital-induced hypnosis in rats. Compound 1, peripherally injected, significantly prolonged the hypnosis time, a typical GABA-mimetic effect, while both intracerebroventricular and intravenous administration of compound 2 surprisingly shortened the hypnotic effect in an atropine-sensitive way. The study was extended also to compounds 1a, 1b and 2a, putative oxidative/hydrolytic metabolites of 1 and 2.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the psychopharmacological effects in mice of the hydroethanolic extract (HE), aqueous, hexane and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions, and 6-methoxy-7-prenyloxycoumarin, three dihydrostyryl-2-pyrones and three styryl-2-pyrones isolated from Polygala sabulosa (Polygalaceae), a folk medicine used as a topical anesthetic. In the elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the HE of P.
The present study was designed to investigate the role of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified volatile anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneally injecting (i.p.) appropriate doses of ether, enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) injected different doses of strychnine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using the awaken test and the pain index in hot-plate test (HPPI) using the hot-plate test.