Insect Vectors

Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Entomology

Male reproductive success is dependent on insemination success and reproductive output. During mating, male mosquitoes transfer not just sperm, but also seminal fluid proteins that may have profound effects on mated female biology and behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of male body size and mating history on semen depletion, female longevity, and reproductive success in Aedes aegypti L. Small and large males were mated in rapid succession with up to five females. Our results indicate that large males had greater mating capacity than small males.

Author(s): 
Helinski, Michelle E. H.
Harrington, Laura C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: In Egypt, Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In nature, P. papatasi feeds on blood from different hosts and sucrose (other sugars) mainly from fig fruits. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of three food regimes on the life table parameters of females mainly the life expectancy as a factor determining the fly's capability for Leishmania transmission.

Author(s): 
Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The sporontocidal activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid was determined against naturally circulating isolates of Plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. Primaquine was used as a negative control and a dihydroacridine-dione (WR-250547) was used as a positive control. Laboratory-reared Anopheles dirus mosquitoes were infected with P. vivax by allowing mosquitoes to feed on blood (placed in an artificial-membrane feeding apparatus) collected from gametocytemic volunteers reporting to local malaria clinics in Tak province, Thailand.

Author(s): 
Ponsa, Narong
Sattabongkot, Jetsumon
Kittayapong, Pattamaporn
Eikarat, Nantana
Coleman, Russell E.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in Vietnam is based on application of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), spraying of insecticides and early microscopic diagnosis of malaria and treatment (EDTM) with artemisinin drugs. This study explores the implementation of the NMCP at provincial level and its impact on malaria incidence (mi) and prevalence in Binh Thuan in southern Vietnam.

Author(s): 
Van Nam, Nguyen
de Vries, Peter J.
Van Toi, Le
Nagelkerke, Nico
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: Between 1995 and 2000, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, experienced a marked increase in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, fuelled by pyrethroid and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. In response, vector control was strengthened and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was deployed in the first Ministry of Health artemisinin-based combination treatment policy in Africa. In South Africa, effective vector and parasite control had historically ensured low-intensity malaria transmission.

Author(s): 
Barnes, Karen I.
Dürrheim, David N.
Little, Francesca
Jackson, Amanda
Mehta, Ushma
Allen, Elizabeth
Dlamini, Sicelo S.
Tsoka, Joyce
Bredenkamp, Barry
Mthembu, D. Jotham
White, Nicholas J.
Sharp, Brian L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Background. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) reduces microscopically confirmed gametocytemia and mosquito infection. However, molecular techniques have recently revealed high prevalences of submicroscopic gametocytemia. Our objective here was to determine the effect of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) monotherapy and treatment with SP plus amodiaquine (AQ), SP plus artesunate (AS), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL; Coartem) on submicroscopic gametocytemia and infectiousness.Methods. Kenyan children (n=528) 6 months-10 years of age were randomized to 4 treatment arms.

Author(s): 
Bousema, J. Teun
Schneider, Petra
Gouagna, Louis C.
Drakeley, Chris J.
Tostmann, Alma
Houben, Rein
Githure, John I.
Ord, Rosalynn
Sutherland, Colin J.
Omar, Sabah A.
Sauerwein, Robert W.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Prevention of malaria epidemics is a priority for African countries. The 2000 malaria epidemic in Burundi prompted the government to implement measures for preventing future outbreaks. Case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy and malaria surveillance were nationally improved. A vector control programme was initiated in one of the most affected highland provinces. The focal distribution of malaria vectors in the highlands was the starting point for designing a targeted vector control strategy.

Author(s): 
Protopopoff, Natacha
Van Bortel, Wim
Marcotty, Tanguy
Van Herp, Michel
Maes, Peter
Baza, Dismas
D'Alessandro, Umberto
Coosemans, Marc
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

This article gives an overview of some of the ongoing challenges that are faced in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Malaria causes approximately 881,000 deaths every year, with nine out of ten deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to the human burden of malaria, the economic burden is vast. It is thought to cost African countries more than US$12 billion every year in direct losses. However, great progress in malaria control has been made in some highly endemic countries.

Author(s): 
Kokwaro, Gilbert
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: In Southeast Asia, malaria vectors bite outside the houses before bedtime, and forest dwellers rarely use insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Thus, we tested the protection of long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIH) using Olyset technology against exophagic vectors in two forest villages of Cambodia. METHODS: In each village, we conducted two entomological surveys (middle and end of the rainy season), each lasting 10 consecutive nights. These comprised human landing collections during the whole night by people sitting outside in the hammocks.

Author(s): 
Sochantha, T.
Van Bortel, W.
Savonnaroth, S.
Marcotty, T.
Speybroeck, N.
Coosemans, M.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum is the major species responsible for malaria transmission on the island of Príncipe, in the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (STP). Indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been intensively deployed on the island, since 2003. Other measures included intermittent preventive therapy (IPT), since 2004, as well as artemisinin-based therapy (ACT) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) from 2005.

Author(s): 
Lee, Pei-Wen
Liu, Chia-Tai
Rampao, Herodes Sacramento
do Rosario, Virgilio E.
Shaio, Men-Fang

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