Aedes aegypti Linn is one of the most important mosquito species. The vectors are responsible for causing deadly diseases like dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Several chemical pesticides used to control these dengue vectors caused severe toxic significances on human health and other non-target beneficial insects. Therefore the current investigation has been made to access the bio-efficacy of the crude seed extracts of T. chebula against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The GC-MS analysis of crude seed extracts of T.
Neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of neem were tested on adult Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to determine their effects on the longevity, fecundity and ovarian development. Different combinations of neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of a neem compound incorporated with sugar solution and adult rearing diets were tested. The Laboratory tests showed that ingestion of neem can significantly reduced the longevity and fertility of both the fly species.
Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and the sustainability of pollination services. One potential threat to bees is the unintended impact of systemic insecticides, which are ingested by bees in the nectar and pollen from flowers of treated crops. To establish whether imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid and insect neurotoxin, harms individual bees when ingested at environmentally realistic levels, we exposed adult worker bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and honey bees, Apis mellifera L.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the binary with follow-up (BWFU) or open-ended (OPED) contingent valuation question format would yield better valid estimates of altruistic willingness to pay (WTP) and examine the feasibility of using intra-community altruistic contributions to procure insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for the poor in Nigeria. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to elicit stated altruistic WTP from a random sub-sample of respondents that had either the OPED or BWFU used to elicit WTP in Southeast Nigeria.
A series of isodithiobiurets, dithiobiurets, and dithiazoles was synthesized and tested for biological activity. Generally, the compounds potentiated the hypnosis induced by pentobarbitone (50 mg/kg ip) in albino mice and exhibited antifungal and insecticidal activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Periplanata americana, respectively. Some compounds showed anticonvulsant and analgesic activity in albino rats.
Cypermethrin a widely used insecticide of Pyrethroids (type II) group, was administered in mice at two dose levels (1/10 of LD50 i.e. 2.5 mg/kg and 1/5 of LD50 i.e. 5.0 mg/kg) and pharmacodynamic interactions of insecticide were studied with centrally acting drugs viz. pentobarbital sodium, amphetamine, pentylenetetrazole, acepromazine and analgin. Cypermethrin pretreatment potentiated the actions of pentobarbital and pentylene-tetrazole as evidenced by an increase in pentobarbital induced hypnosis and duration of pentylene-tetrazole induced chemoshock seizures.
Oxydemeton-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide produced decrease in the exploratory behaviour and prolongation of barbitone sodium-induced hypnosis after intermittent aerosol spray inhalational exposure for 1 h in rats compared to the saline control group. Further, CD50 +/- S.E.M. value for pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and CI50 +/- S.E.M. value for electroshock (i.e. the dose of PTZ and intensity of electroshock producing positive seizure response in 50% of rats) were significantly decreased by acute exposure to oxydemeton-methyl compared to that of saline control group.
Oxydemeton-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide produced decrease in the exploratory behaviour and prolongation of barbitone sodium induced hypnosis in rats after intermittent aerosol spray inhalational exposure, for 1/2 hour daily for 7 consecutive days, compared to the saline control group. Further, ED50 +/- SEM value for haloperidol induced catalepsy, CD50 +/- SEM value for pentylenetetrazole induced seizure and CI50 +/- SEM value for electroshock (i.e.
OBJECTIVE: The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in Vietnam is based on application of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), spraying of insecticides and early microscopic diagnosis of malaria and treatment (EDTM) with artemisinin drugs. This study explores the implementation of the NMCP at provincial level and its impact on malaria incidence (mi) and prevalence in Binh Thuan in southern Vietnam.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost effectiveness of selected malaria control interventions in the context of reaching the millennium development goals for malaria. DESIGN: Generalised cost effectiveness analysis. DATA SOURCES: Efficacy data came from the literature and authors' calculations supported by expert opinion. Quantities for resource inputs came from the literature and from expert opinion; prices came from the WHO-CHOICE database.