Insulin

Publication Title: 
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & Pharmacotherapie

Embelia ribes (ER) has been documented in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of ER and its active bio-marker, embelin and its derivatives in the treatment of DM. Literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Scifinder, and Google Scholar.

Author(s): 
Durg, Sharanbasappa
Veerapur, Veeresh P.
Neelima, Satrasala
Dhadde, Shivsharan B.
Publication Title: 
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes: Official Journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association

The aqueous extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. has been evaluated for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin (STZ) induced mild diabetic rats and compared with a known drug, tolbutamide. The oral effective dose (ED) of the extract was observed to be 200 mg/kg body weight, which produced a fall of 55.6% (p<0.01) in the oral glucose tolerance test.

Author(s): 
Murali, Y. K.
Anand, P.
Tandon, V.
Singh, R.
Chandra, R.
Murthy, P. S.
Publication Title: 
BioFactors (Oxford, England)

The thiazolidinedione (TZDs) class of drugs are very effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). But due to the adverse effects of synthetic TZDs, their use is strictly regulated. The therapeutic actions of TZDs are mediated via modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Naturally occurring PPAR? modulators are more desirable as they lack the serious adverse effects caused by TZDs. This has prompted the exploitation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine, for their potential PPAR? activity.

Author(s): 
Shyni, Gangadharan Leela
Kavitha, Sasidharan
Indu, Sasidharan
Arya, Anil Das
Anusree, Sasidharan Suseela
Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran
Vandana, Sankar
Sundaresan, Andikannu
Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan
Publication Title: 
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics

The potential link between aging and insulin signaling has attracted substantial attention since several decades ago, on the basis of evidence including age-related increase in incidence of insulin resistance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in accelerated aging syndromes and lifespan extension by caloric restriction in rodents. In addition, the intensive investigations in C.

Author(s): 
Kaneki, M.
Publication Title: 
Microscopy Research and Technique

Caloric restriction (CR) may retard aging processes and extend lifespan in organisms by altering energy-metabolic pathways. In CR rodents, glucose influx into tissues is not reduced, as compared with control animals fed ad libitum (AL), although plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin are lower. Gene expression profiles in rodents have suggested that CR promotes gluconeogenesis and fatty acid biosynthesis in skeletal muscle. In the liver, CR promotes gluconeogenesis but decreases fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis.

Author(s): 
Yamaza, Haruyoshi
Chiba, Takuya
Higami, Yoshikazu
Shimokawa, Isao
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

In investigating the role of metal ions in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, we examined the effects of clioquinol, a metal-binding compound currently in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease treatment, on mutant huntingtin-expressing cells. We found that PC12 cells expressing polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin exon 1 accumulated less mutant protein and showed decreased cell death when treated with clioquinol. This effect was polyglutamine-length-specific and did not alter mRNA levels or protein degradation rates.

Author(s): 
Nguyen, Trent
Hamby, Aaron
Massa, Stephen M.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

The purpose of this brief review is to highlight some of the more important advances in endocrinology of aging research over the past year. Four advances were chosen and briefly described.

Author(s): 
Bellino, Francis L.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Brain aging is associated with a progressive imbalance between antioxidant defenses and intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as exemplified by increases in products of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA oxidation. Oxidative conditions cause not only structural damage but also changes in the set points of redox-sensitive signaling processes including the insulin receptor signaling pathway. In the absence of insulin, the otherwise low insulin receptor signaling is strongly enhanced by oxidative conditions.

Author(s): 
Drˆge, Wulf
Schipper, Hyman M.
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

BACKGROUND: We review studies showing that CR acts rapidly, even in late adulthood, to extend health- and lifespan in mice. These rapid physiological effects are closely linked to patterns of gene expression in liver and heart. Non-human primate and human studies suggest that the signal transduction pathways responsible for the lifespan and health effects of caloric restriction (CR) may also be involved in human longevity. Thus, pharmaceuticals capable of mimicking the effects of CR (and other methods of lifespan extension) may have application to human health.

Author(s): 
Spindler, Stephen R.
Mote, Patricia L.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Molecular Medicine

The sirtuin 1 protein (SIRT1) is a member of the class III NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, which are also referred to as the 'sirtuins'. The sirtuins and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in particular, are known to play a role in the response to DNA damage, metabolism, longevity and carcinogenesis. SIRT1 regulates different cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis through deacetylation of important regulatory proteins such as p53, FOXO3a and NFkappaB.

Author(s): 
Engel, Nicole
Mahlknecht, Ulrich

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