Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
The potential link between aging and insulin signaling has attracted substantial attention since several decades ago, on the basis of evidence including age-related increase in incidence of insulin resistance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in accelerated aging syndromes and lifespan extension by caloric restriction in rodents. In addition, the intensive investigations in C.
Caloric restriction (CR) may retard aging processes and extend lifespan in organisms by altering energy-metabolic pathways. In CR rodents, glucose influx into tissues is not reduced, as compared with control animals fed ad libitum (AL), although plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin are lower. Gene expression profiles in rodents have suggested that CR promotes gluconeogenesis and fatty acid biosynthesis in skeletal muscle. In the liver, CR promotes gluconeogenesis but decreases fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
In investigating the role of metal ions in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, we examined the effects of clioquinol, a metal-binding compound currently in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease treatment, on mutant huntingtin-expressing cells. We found that PC12 cells expressing polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin exon 1 accumulated less mutant protein and showed decreased cell death when treated with clioquinol. This effect was polyglutamine-length-specific and did not alter mRNA levels or protein degradation rates.
Brain aging is associated with a progressive imbalance between antioxidant defenses and intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as exemplified by increases in products of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA oxidation. Oxidative conditions cause not only structural damage but also changes in the set points of redox-sensitive signaling processes including the insulin receptor signaling pathway. In the absence of insulin, the otherwise low insulin receptor signaling is strongly enhanced by oxidative conditions.
BACKGROUND: We review studies showing that CR acts rapidly, even in late adulthood, to extend health- and lifespan in mice. These rapid physiological effects are closely linked to patterns of gene expression in liver and heart. Non-human primate and human studies suggest that the signal transduction pathways responsible for the lifespan and health effects of caloric restriction (CR) may also be involved in human longevity. Thus, pharmaceuticals capable of mimicking the effects of CR (and other methods of lifespan extension) may have application to human health.
The sirtuin 1 protein (SIRT1) is a member of the class III NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, which are also referred to as the 'sirtuins'. The sirtuins and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in particular, are known to play a role in the response to DNA damage, metabolism, longevity and carcinogenesis. SIRT1 regulates different cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis through deacetylation of important regulatory proteins such as p53, FOXO3a and NFkappaB.
This review focuses on research involving calorie restriction (CR) in humans and the resulting changes observed in endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. Special emphasis is given to the clinical science studies designed to investigate the effects of controlled, high-quality, energy-restricted diets on both biomarkers of longevity and on the development of chronic diseases of human aging. Prolonged CR has been shown to extend both the median and maximal lifespan in a variety of lower species such as yeast, worms, fish, rats and mice.
Enormous strides in understanding aging have come from the discovery that mutations in single genes can extend healthy life-span in laboratory model organisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the mouse. IIS [insulin/IGF (insulin-like growth factor)-like signalling] stands out as an important, evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in the determination of lifespan.
Can we extend human lifespan? Do we need to regulate lifestyle choices or can we simply pop a pill to make us live longer? These are questions raised by two new studies demonstrating significant lifespan extension in mice fed the drug rapamycin in their diet and in calorically restricted rhesus monkeys.