Insulin-Like Growth Factor II

Publication Title: 
Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica / Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish Histochemical and Cytochemical Society

The insulin-like growth factor-2 (Igf2)-H19 locus encodes important paternally imprinted genes that govern normal embryonic development. While Igf-2 encodes IGF2, which is an autocrine/paracrine mitogen,† transcription of H19 gives rise to non-coding mRNA that is a precursor of several microRNAs (miRNAs) that negatively affect cell proliferation.

Author(s): 
Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.
Publication Title: 
Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et MÈtabolisme

This review examines the influence of a reduction in caloric intake on cancer and longevity. Data indicating that rodents subjected to caloric restriction display lower tumor incidence, reduced susceptibility to carcinogens and extended lifespan is analyzed. The potential role of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-I) axis in this effect is discussed as is the evidence that a reduction in growth hormone and/or IGF-I leads to a reduction in spontaneous tumors and susceptibility to carcinogens.

Author(s): 
Sell, Ch
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

IGF2 is a paternally expressed imprinted gene with an important role in development and brain function. Allele-specific expression of IGF2 is regulated by DNA methylation at three differentially methylated regions (DMRs) spanning the IGF2/H19 domain on human 11p15.5. We have comprehensively assessed DNA methylation and genotype across the three DMRs and the H19 promoter using tissue from a unique collection of well-characterized and neuropathologically-dissected post-mortem human cerebellum samples (n = 106) and frontal cortex samples (n = 51).

Author(s): 
Pidsley, Ruth
Dempster, Emma
Troakes, Claire
Al-Sarraj, Safa
Mill, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
Molecular Brain

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) is a paternally expressed imprinted gene regulating fetal growth, playing an integral role in the development of many tissues including the brain. The parent-of-origin specific expression of Igf2 is largely controlled by allele-specific DNA methylation at CTCF-binding sites in the imprinting control region (ICR), located immediately upstream of the neighboring H19 gene. Previously we reported evidence of a negative correlation between DNA methylation in this region and cerebellum weight in humans.

Author(s): 
Pidsley, Ruth
Fernandes, Cathy
Viana, Joana
Paya-Cano, Jose L.
Liu, Lin
Smith, Rebecca G.
Schalkwyk, Leonard C.
Mill, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Changes in epigenetic programming of embryonic growth genes during pregnancy seem to affect fetal growth. Therefore, in a population-based prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands, we examined associations between fetal and infant growth and DNA methylation of IGF2DMR, H19 and MTHFR. For this study, we selected 69 case children born small-for-gestational age (SGA, birth weight <-2SDS) and 471 control children. Fetal growth was assessed with serial ultrasound measurements. Information on birth outcomes was retrieved from medical records.

Author(s): 
Bouwland-Both, Marieke I.
van Mil, Nina H.
Stolk, Lisette
Eilers, Paul H. C.
Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.
Heijmans, Bastiaan T.
Tiemeier, Henning
Hofman, Albert
Steegers, Eric A. P.
Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.
Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P. M.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacogenomics

AIM: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are known to induce metabolic disturbances. Genetic pathways, such as the IGF pathway could be associated with increased metabolic syndrome (MetS). Additionally, IGF2 methylation varies as a function of environmental influences and is associated with schizophrenia and MetS. The current study aims to evaluate whether genetic and epigenetic variation in genes of the IGF pathway are associated with metabolic disturbances in patients under treatment with SGAs.

Author(s): 
Moons, Tim
De Hert, Marc
Kenis, Gunther
Viechtbauer, Wolfgang
van Os, Jim
Gohlke, Henning
Claes, Stephan
van Winkel, Ruud
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Neurodevelopmental disruptions caused by obstetric complications play a role in the etiology of several phenotypes associated with neuropsychiatric diseases and cognitive dysfunctions. Importantly, it has been noticed that epigenetic processes occurring early in life may mediate these associations. Here, DNA methylation signatures at IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) and IGF2BP1-3 (IGF2-binding proteins 1-3) were examined in a sample consisting of 34 adult monozygotic (MZ) twins informative for obstetric complications and cognitive performance.

Author(s): 
CÛrdova-Palomera, Aldo
Alemany, Silvia
FatjÛ-Vilas, Mar
Goldberg, Ximena
Leza, Juan Carlos
Gonz·lez-Pinto, Ana
Nenadic, Igor
FaÒan·s, Lourdes
Publication Title: 
Translational Psychiatry

Depressive disorders have been shown to be highly influenced by environmental pathogenic factors, some of which are believed to exert stress on human brain functioning via epigenetic modifications. Previous genome-wide methylomic studies on depression have suggested that, along with differential DNA methylation, affected co-twins of monozygotic (MZ) pairs have increased DNA methylation variability, probably in line with theories of epigenetic stochasticity. Nevertheless, the potential biological roots of this variability remain largely unexplored.

Author(s): 
CÛrdova-Palomera, A.
FatjÛ-Vilas, M.
GastÛ, C.
Navarro, V.
Krebs, M.-O.
FaÒan·s, L.
Publication Title: 
Genes, Brain, and Behavior

Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes during embryonic development is influenced by the prenatal environment. Our aim was to examine the effect of maternal emotional stress and cortisol levels during pregnancy on methylation of imprinted genes, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha stimulating extra-large (GNASXL), using umbilical cord blood DNA. Maternal depressed mood (Edinburgh Depression Scale; EDS), pregnancy-related anxiety questionnaire (PRAQ) and cortisol day profiles were assessed throughout pregnancy.

Author(s): 
Vangeel, E. B.
Izzi, B.
Hompes, T.
Vansteelandt, K.
Lambrechts, D.
Freson, K.
Claes, S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

Efficient osteogenic differentiation and bone formation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) should have clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing. MSCs are adherent bone marrow stromal cells that can self-renew and differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We have identified bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) as one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Here we investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) on BMP-9-induced bone formation. We have found that endogenous IGF-2 expression is low in MSCs.

Author(s): 
Chen, Liang
Jiang, Wei
Huang, Jiayi
He, Bai-Cheng
Zuo, Guo-Wei
Zhang, Wenli
Luo, Qing
Shi, Qiong
Zhang, Bing-Qiang
Wagner, Eric R.
Luo, Jinyong
Tang, Min
Wietholt, Christian
Luo, Xiaoji
Bi, Yang
Su, Yuxi
Liu, Bo
Kim, Stephanie H.
He, Connie J.
Hu, Yawen
Shen, Jikun
Rastegar, Farbod
Huang, Enyi
Gao, Yanhong
Gao, Jian-Li
Zhou, Jian-Zhong
Reid, Russell R.
Luu, Hue H.
Haydon, Rex C.
He, Tong-Chuan
Deng, Zhong-Liang

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