Insulin-Secreting Cells

Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can dissipate mitochondrial protonmotive force by increasing the proton conductance of the inner membrane and through this effect could decrease ROS production, ameliorate oxidative stress and extend lifespan. We investigated whether ubiquitous, pan-neuronal or neurosecretory cell-specific expression of human UCP3 (hUCP3) in adult Drosophila melanogaster affected lifespan.

Author(s): 
Humphrey, Dickon M.
Toivonen, Janne M.
Giannakou, Maria
Partridge, Linda
Brand, Martin D.
Publication Title: 
Cell

Sir2 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase that connects metabolism with longevity in yeast, flies, and worms. Mammals have seven Sir2 homologs (SIRT1-7). We show that SIRT4 is a mitochondrial enzyme that uses NAD to ADP-ribosylate and downregulate glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. GDH is known to promote the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine, generating ATP, which promotes insulin secretion. Loss of SIRT4 in insulinoma cells activates GDH, thereby upregulating amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion.

Author(s): 
Haigis, Marcia C.
Mostoslavsky, Raul
Haigis, Kevin M.
Fahie, Kamau
Christodoulou, Danos C.
Murphy, Andrew J.
Valenzuela, David M.
Yancopoulos, George D.
Karow, Margaret
Blander, Gil
Wolberger, Cynthia
Prolla, Tomas A.
Weindruch, Richard
Alt, Frederick W.
Guarente, Leonard
Publication Title: 
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism

Over the past century, there have been major advances in medicine, diet and living conditions that have substantially extended the health span of people in the developed world. Over the past decade or so, the science of ageing has made great strides in providing an understanding of the underlying causes of ageing and how diet and genes play into the ageing process. In this essay, we will review some of the recent advances made in the science of sirtuins and beta-cell biology, and discuss how we will apply this knowledge to further the progress of humankind in healthy ageing.

Author(s): 
Bordone, L.
Guarente, L.
Publication Title: 
Current Aging Science

Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in several vegetal sources, has been shown to possess lifespan-promoting properties in yeast and metazoans, including small mammals. While in yeast and low metazoans resveratrol acts mainly by activating the histone deacetylase Sir2, in mammals it appears to target - besides the Sir2 homolog SIRT1 - several crucial pathways for the control of metabolism, including the AMPK and the insulin-IGF1 receptors axis.

Author(s): 
Frˆjdˆ, Sara
Durand, Christine
Pirola, Luciano
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Both experimental and clinical studies suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. This oxidative stress leads to β-cell destruction by apoptosis. Hence exploring agents modulating oxidative stress is an effective strategy in the treatment of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Plants are a major source of anti-oxidants and exert protective effects against oxidative stress in biological systems.

Author(s): 
Kalekar, Samidha A.
Munshi, Renuka P.
Thatte, Urmila M.
Publication Title: 
Planta Medica

Desmodium gangeticum is widely used in the indigenous system of medicine in India and is reported to contain flavone and isoflavonoid glycosides. It forms the ingredient of many Ayurvedic formulations used for diabetes. The present study was thus aimed at evaluating the insulin secretion and antidiabetic activity of Desmodium gangeticum. Treatment of diabetic rats with aerial parts of D. gangeticum extract (DG, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. D.

Author(s): 
Govindarajan, Raghavan
Asare-Anane, Henry
Persaud, Shanta
Jones, Peter
Houghton, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum (Asteraceae) have been popularly used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diabetes and skin disorders. Folk medicine from Rayalaseema (Andhra Pradesh, India) reported wide spread usage in diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the hypoglycemic properties and mechanism of the methanolic fraction of C. anthelminticum seeds (CAMFs) on mouse β-TC6 pancreatic cell line and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the crude methanolic fraction of C.

Author(s): 
Arya, Aditya
Looi, Chung Yeng
Cheah, Shiau Chuen
Mustafa, Mohd Rais
Mohd, Mustafa Ali
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Both experimental and clinical studies suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. This oxidative stress leads to β-cell destruction by apoptosis. Hence exploring agents modulating oxidative stress is an effective strategy in the treatment of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Plants are a major source of anti-oxidants and exert protective effects against oxidative stress in biological systems.

Author(s): 
Kalekar, Samidha A.
Munshi, Renuka P.
Thatte, Urmila M.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasing, creating a need for T2DM animal models for the study of disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. The purpose of this project was to develop a rat model of T2DM that more closely models the pathophysiology of T2DM in humans. The model was created by crossing obese Sprague-Dawley rats with insulin resistance resulting from polygenic adult-onset obesity with Zucker diabetic fatty-lean rats that have a defect in pancreatic beta-cell function but normal leptin signaling.

Author(s): 
Cummings, Bethany P.
Digitale, Erin K.
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Graham, James L.
Baskin, Denis G.
Reed, Benjamin J.
Sweet, Ian R.
Griffen, Steven C.
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine

Hyperglycemia in diabetic conditions may cause oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells, leading to their dysfunction and insulin resistance within peripheral tissues. Previous studies suggest that American ginseng berry extract may have hypoglycemic effects, as well as offer antioxidant protection. We examined effects of American ginseng berry extract and ginsenoside Re in a pancreatic beta-cell line, MIN-6, to determine if these two properties are related.

Author(s): 
Lin, Elaine
Wang, Yong
Mehendale, Sangeeta
Sun, Shi
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Xie, Jing-Tian
Aung, Han H.
Yuan, Chun-Su

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