In 1980, drug consumption per capita was 455 Swedish crowns (SEK) in Sweden, SEK 452 in Denmark, SEK 384 in Finland and SEK 382 in Norway; actual figures for Denmark, Finland and Norway being converted into Swedish crowns using the mean 1980 exchange rates. To what extent can these differences be explained by differences in the drug reimbursement programmes of these four Nordic countries?
Research has demonstrated that Medicare beneficiaries with drug coverage consume more clinically essential drugs. However, generosity of coverage varies considerably across beneficiaries. This study examines the association between types of drug coverage and the consumption and cost per tablet of essential antihypertensive medications among beneficiaries with hypertension.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the impact of drug coverage generosity on older persons' prescription events (fills) and expenditures. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 6237 older persons from the 1995 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Dependent variables were per capita prescription events and expenditures. Independent variables were insurance type and drug coverage generosity. Control variables included sociodemographic and health status factors.
The Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology = Journal Canadien De Pharmacologie Clinique
INTRODUCTION: Federal legislation outlined in the Medical Care Act of 1966 and the Canada Health Act of 1984 stipulates that Canadian provincial governments are to administer insurance programs for "medically necessary" services provided by hospitals and physicians. The legislation did not mandate provincial government coverage for prescription drugs taken outside of the hospital. Each province has, however, provided coverage to senior citizens and social assistance recipients; some provinces have introduced drug coverage for the general public.
While Congress debated prescription drug coverage for more than a decade before amending the Medicare program in 2003, thirty-one states provided such benefits to their citizens. Why were the same special interests that were reputedly so effective in delaying prescription drug coverage at the national level seemingly incapable of stopping the majority of states from passing the same kinds of legislation?
State-to-state differences in generosity of assistance programs targeted toward poor seniors and people with disabilities have always been the "price of federalism." Typically, these differences are vitiated when federal law enters a field. Not so with the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. States' choices of how much of the uncovered burden of prescription drug costs is left to near-poor elderly and disabled residents continues to vary widely even though Medicare began to provide pharmaceutical coverage beginning January 2006.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between generosity of drug coverage and essential cardiovascular medication use among retired seniors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the 1997 to 2000 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, a nationally representative survey of the Medicare population. METHODS: The study examined community-dwelling fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older with retiree health insurance and with coronary heart disease and hyperlipidemia (n = 1220) or congestive heart failure (n = 1147).