This article reviews evaluation studies of programs designed to treat sex offenders with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) published in peer-reviewed journals between 1994 and 2014. The design of this study is mirrored after PRISMA (Preferred Reporting of Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) recommendations for conducting a systematic literature review. The study design, study setting, characteristics of participants, type of treatment, and intervention procedures comprise areas of focus for evaluating the implementation of treatment programs.
Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities: JARID
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for stress and psychological distress in professional caregivers supporting individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDDs) is reviewed. METHODS: Eight studies met inclusion criteria and were systematically reviewed, including RCTs and single-group designs.
A number of studies have used mindfulness-based interventions to influence the behavior of people with intellectual disabilities, to improve their quality of life, and to reduce challenging behavior. The present review critically evaluates 18 studies and assesses the clinical and academic impact of their findings. Strengths identified included replicable methodological approaches, use of multiple baseline designs, strong construct and criterion validity, and consideration of the mechanisms by which mindfulness influences behavior change.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes research and commentaries on psychotherapy for adults with intellectual disabilities published since 2008. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been very few empirical studies of the effectiveness of psychotherapy in this context over recent years despite a strong perception that such approaches are not only necessary but also of great value. There have been some interesting, though so far only suggestive, findings concerning the relationship between intellectual level and suitability for treatment, primarily with cognitive behavioural therapy.
Can individuals with developmental disabilities learn mindfulness? If so, with what result? A systematic literature review identified 12 studies that taught mindfulness practice to individuals with mild to severe developmental disabilities, demonstrating that mindfulness intervention could significantly reduce the behavioural and/or psychological problems of this population. The majority of these mindfulness intervention studies were longitudinal, featuring long intervention periods and long lasting intervention effects.
OBJECTIVE: The debate about the effectiveness of homeopathy hits the headlines from time to time. Reported evidences for the role of homeopathy in psychiatric illness relevant to people with intellectual disabilities are patchy and inconsistent. In this review we summarize the best available evidence for the use of homeopathy to treat the psychiatric disorders common in this population. METHODS: Systematic literature review was conducted through February 2012 to July 2012 in AMED, CINHAL, BNI, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO and GOOGLE SCHOLAR.
Mortality trends during the past 50 years in the population of a hospital group for the mentally handicapped are reported. There has been a marked change in the causes of death during this period. Whilst tuberculosis is no longer a major cause, other terminal respiratory tract infections are still prevalent. Deaths due to status epilepticus have decreased, with a concomitant increase in those due to carcinoma, myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. Similarly, the mortality rate has altered significantly.
PURPOSE: To describe the phenotypic variability in a Polish Norrie disease (ND) family associated with the missense mutation A63D. METHODS: A patient with spared vision from a Polish ND family underwent detailed ophthalmological examinations including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ultrasound (USG), angiography, Goldmann kinetic visual field, and electroretinography (ERG). Mutation screening was carried out using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and subsequent DNA sequencing of the coding part of the ND gene.
Phenylketonuria is a flagship inborn error of metabolism and has been at the forefront of our growing understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of this family of disorders. In this article, the current understanding of its diagnosis, treatment, and complex molecular biology and physiology is reviewed. Recent papers exploring newer and less well-delineated areas of cofactor supplementation and genetic and epigenetic modification of the genotypic expression are presented. The excitement surrounding the continued exploration of the hyperphenylalaninemias is emphasized.
Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder with a broadly undiscovered genetic etiology. Recent studies of de novo mutations (DNMs) in schizophrenia and autism have reinforced the hypothesis that rare genetic variation contributes to risk. We carried out exome sequencing on 57 trios with sporadic or familial schizophrenia. In sporadic trios, we observed a ~3.5-fold increase in the proportion of nonsense DNMs (0.101 vs 0.031, empirical P=0.01, Benjamini-Hochberg-corrected P=0.044).