Intelligence Tests

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy remain refractory to drug treatment and continue to experience seizures whilst taking one or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Several non-pharmacological interventions that may be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to AEDs are available for refractory patients.

Author(s): 
Jackson, Cerian F.
Makin, Selina M.
Marson, Anthony G.
Kerr, Michael
Publication Title: 
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift

It is claimed that regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) improves cognitive function and increases intelligence. This systematic review assesses the evidence from randomised controlled trials for cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function. Searches were made of electronic databases and the collected papers and official websites of the TM organisation. Only randomised controlled trials with objective outcome measures of the cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function were included.

Author(s): 
Canter, Peter H.
Ernst, Edzard
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy remain refractory to drug treatment and continue to experience seizures whilst taking one or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Several non-pharmacological interventions that may be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to AEDs are available for refractory patients.

Author(s): 
Jackson, Cerian F.
Makin, Selina M.
Marson, Anthony G.
Kerr, Michael
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience Letters

A cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genotype (V/V homozygosity for I405V, NCBI dbSNP rs5882) has been associated with preservation of cognitive function in old age, in addition to its associations with exceptional longevity and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypotheses that this polymorphism was associated with either level of cognitive function or lifetime cognitive change in 525 participants who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1932. Participants took the same well-validated mental ability test at ages 11 and 79.

Author(s): 
Johnson, Wendy
Harris, Sarah E.
Collins, Patrick
Starr, John M.
Whalley, Lawrence J.
Deary, Ian J.
Publication Title: 
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Attempts to correlate measures of intellectual ability with localized anatomical imaging features of the brain have yielded variable findings distributed across frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. To better define the gray and white matter correlates of intellectual ability and the effects of sex and age, we analyzed the brains of 105 healthy individuals, ages 7-57 years, who had a Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) of 70 or higher. We examined associations of FSIQ with cortical thickness and with white matter volume throughout the cerebrum.

Author(s): 
Goh, Suzanne
Bansal, Ravi
Xu, Dongrong
Hao, Xuejun
Liu, Jun
Peterson, Bradley S.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Health Psychology

Kanazawa (2006) has put forward an evolutionarily grounded theory which claims that individuals in wealthier and more egalitarian societies live longer and stay healthier not because they are wealthier or more egalitarian but because they are more intelligent (2006: 637). The claim rests on an argument which asserts that general intelligence is a solution to evolutionarily novel problems and that most dangers to health in contemporary society are evolutionarily novel. Kanazawa also claims that this relationship does not hold in sub-Saharan Africa.

Author(s): 
Dickins, T. E.
Sear, R.
Wells, A. J.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatry Research

The purpose of this study was to investigate Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)-related mechanisms in schizophrenia, including CGG triplet expansion, FMR1 mRNA, and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) levels in lymphocytes. We investigated 36 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls using Southern blot analysis, mRNA assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). General intellectual functions were assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, and the clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

Author(s): 
Kov·cs, Tam·s
Kelemen, Oguz
KÈri, Szabolcs
Publication Title: 
European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists

BACKGROUND: Though cognitive abilities in adulthood are largely influenced by individual genetic background, they have also been shown to be importantly influenced by environmental factors. Some of these influences are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Accordingly, polymorphic variants in the epigenetic gene DNMT3B have been linked to neurocognitive performance.

Author(s): 
CÛrdova-Palomera, A.
FatjÛ-Vilas, M.
Kebir, O.
GastÛ, C.
Krebs, M. O.
FaÒan·s, L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychiatric Research

Common variants of the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene are implicated in psychotic and other disorders, via their role in regulating glucocorticoid receptor (GR) receptor sensitivity and effects on the broader function of the HPA system in response to stress.

Author(s): 
Green, Melissa J.
Raudino, Alessandra
Cairns, Murray J.
Wu, Jingqin
Tooney, Paul A.
Scott, Rodney J.
Carr, Vaughan J.
Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank
Publication Title: 
Human Brain Mapping

In anorexia nervosa, problems with social relationships contribute to illness, and improvements in social support are associated with recovery. Using the multiround trust game and 3T MRI, we compare neural responses in a social relationship in three groups of women: women with anorexia nervosa, women in long-term weight recovery from anorexia nervosa, and healthy comparison women. Surrogate markers related to social signals in the game were computed each round to assess whether the relationship was improving (benevolence) or deteriorating (malevolence) for each subject.

Author(s): 
McAdams, Carrie J.
Lohrenz, Terry
Montague, P. Read

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