PURPOSE: To explore the effect of emotion priming and physician communication behaviors on optimism bias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a 5 ◊ 2 between-subject randomized factorial experiment using a Web-based interactive video designed to simulate a family meeting for a critically ill spouse/parent. Eligibility included age at least 35 years and self-identifying as the surrogate for a spouse/parent. The primary outcome was the surrogate's election of code status.
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being
This study explores the perceived meaning of dependency on care as experienced by intensive care patients. Research from non-intensive settings shows that dependency is often experienced negatively, but literature on the subject experienced by patients in the ICU is sparse. The study is based on in-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews of lived experience with three former patients admitted to an intensive care unit at a Danish university hospital. The in-depth interviews have been characterized as narratives.
Propofol, a new anesthetic, is now used more commonly to sedate patients in the intensive care unit. Propofol's rapid elimination has popularized its use to induce and maintain hypnosis in patients with refractory status epilepticus. It is also associated with occasional severe metabolic acidosis and hypoxia of indeterminate cause in children. We report a child and an adolescent who developed severe metabolic acidosis, progressive hypoxia, and rhabdomyolysis during maintenance infusion of propofol for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus.
INTRODUCTION: In the operating room, anaesthetist must provide unconsciousness, analgesia and muscular relaxation. In intensive therapy (IT), the rules are different and not every patient requires sedation, but almost every patient needs analgesia. The patient who is alert, calm and comfortable despite the presence of tubes and cannulas in the nose, mouth, radial artery, central vein, urethra, surgical wounds, pleural space etc. does not need any sedation. However, sedation and analgesia are clinically inseparable.
The effects of BZ drugs result from interaction at the GABAA receptor within the CNS, producing anxiolysis, hypnosis, and amnesia in a dose-dependent fashion. These sedative effects are best titrated to reproducible clinical endpoints, using scoring systems such as the Ramsay scale. All BZs exhibit similar pharmacologic effects, but the important differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics should be recognized to use these drugs safely and effectively within the ICU.
The diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in intensive care patients have been for a long time neglected. They are nowadays better recognized and managed. These disorders are mainly: delirium; anxiety disorders, from simple anxiety to panic disorder with agitation; adaptation disorders with depressive mood; brief psychotic disorders with persecution ideas. The manifestations of psychiatric disorders occur not only during the stay in intensive care unit (ICU) but also after transfer from ICU and several months after discharge from hospital.
The Bispectral Index (BIS) is a single numeric value that indicates the depth of hypnosis by estimating the level of electrical activity in the brain through analysis of the frequency bands in the electroencephalogram. The BIS was primarily developed to monitor the level of hypnosis during surgery and has recently begun to be used in critically-ill patients. Currently, there is little experience of the BIS in critically-ill children. We present 6 cases that illustrate the utility of BIS monitoring in the PICU.
BACKGROUND: Sedation of the critically ill patient has several components including hypnosis and analgesia. Hypnotic-based sedation (HBS), where midazolam and/or propofol are used, with morphine or another analgesic added as needed has been common. The advent of remifentanil has allowed greater use of analgesia-based sedation (ABS) where relief of discomfort from the tracheal tube or pain are the important objectives, and hypnosis is given as necessary. Method. We compared HBS and ABS (remifentanil-based sedation) within a general intensive care unit (ICU).
Analgesia and hypnosis are two separate entities and should result in distinct assessment and management for patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Those patients are exposed to moderate-severe pain and they are likely to remember pain as one bothersome experience. Any cause of patient discomfort is sought with the priority given to pain and adequate analgesia. Assessing pain must rely upon the use of clinical scoring systems, although these instruments are still underused in ICU.
PURPOSE: Measurement of brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and midlatency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) using a new monitor integrated module was compared with an established device. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the new system could replace the more inconvenient established technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MLAEP and BAEP were obtained from 19 anesthetized male patients using the AEP-Module for Monitor S/5 [GE, Helsinki, Finland (S/5)] and Neuropack 4 mini [Nihon Kohden, Tokyo, Japan (Neuropack)]. Significance of different results was calculated by paired t test.