Intention to Treat Analysis

Publication Title: 
Birth (Berkeley, Calif.)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of nonpharmacologic approaches to pain relief during labor, according to their endogenous mechanism of action, on obstetric interventions, maternal, and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCE: Cochrane library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the MRCT databases were used to screen studies from January 1990 to December 2012. STUDY SELECTION: According to Cochrane criteria, we selected randomized controlled trials that compared nonpharmacologic approaches for pain relief during labor to usual care, using intention-to-treat method.

Author(s): 
Chaillet, Nils
Belaid, Loubna
Crochetière, Chantal
Roy, Louise
Gagné, Guy-Paul
Moutquin, Jean Marie
Rossignol, Michel
Dugas, Marylène
Wassef, Maggy
Bonapace, Julie
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are conditions characterized by physical anomalies, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and neurocognitive deficits, including intellectual, executive, and memory deficits. There are no specific biological treatments for FASDs, but rodent models have shown that prenatal or postnatal choline supplementation reduces cognitive and behavioral deficits. Potential mechanisms include phospholipid production for axonal growth and myelination, acetylcholine enhancement, and epigenetic effects.

Author(s): 
Wozniak, Jeffrey R.
Fuglestad, Anita J.
Eckerle, Judith K.
Fink, Birgit A.
Hoecker, Heather L.
Boys, Christopher J.
Radke, Joshua P.
Kroupina, Maria G.
Miller, Neely C.
Brearley, Ann M.
Zeisel, Steven H.
Georgieff, Michael K.
Publication Title: 
BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the use of epidural analgesia and experienced pain during childbirth after a short antenatal training course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled, single-blinded trial using a three-arm design. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital Skejby in Denmark during the period July 2009 until August 2011. POPULATION: A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women.

Author(s): 
Werner, A.
Uldbjerg, N.
Zachariae, R.
Rosen, G.
Nohr, E. A.
Publication Title: 
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a brief course in self-hypnosis for childbirth on duration of the labor and other birth outcomes. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women.

Author(s): 
Werner, Anette
Uldbjerg, Niels
Zachariae, Robert
Nohr, Ellen A.
Publication Title: 
Birth (Berkeley, Calif.)

BACKGROUND: Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience.

Author(s): 
Werner, Anette
Uldbjerg, Niels
Zachariae, Robert
Wu, Chun Sen
Nohr, Ellen A.
Publication Title: 
Trials

BACKGROUND: Immediate injectable treatment is essential for severe malaria. Otherwise, the afflicted risk lifelong impairment or death. In rural areas of Africa and Asia, appropriate care is often miles away. In 2009, Melba Gomes and her colleagues published the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rectal artesunate for suspected severe malaria in such remote areas.

Author(s): 
Hirji, Karim F.
Premji, Zulfiqarali G.
Publication Title: 
The New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: Pyronaridine-artesunate is an artemisinin-based combination therapy under evaluation for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, open-label, multicenter, noninferiority trial that included 1271 patients between 3 and 60 years of age from Asia (81.3%) or Africa (18.7%) with microscopically confirmed, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Patients underwent randomization for treatment with a fixed-dose combination of 180 mg of pyronaridine and 60 mg of artesunate or with 250 mg of mefloquine plus 100 mg of artesunate.

Author(s): 
Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai
Phyo, Aung Pyae
Uthaisin, Chirapong
Poravuth, Yi
Binh, Tran Quang
Tinto, Halidou
Pénali, Louis K.
Valecha, Neena
Tien, Nong Thi
Abdulla, Salim
Borghini-Fuhrer, Isabelle
Duparc, Stephan
Shin, Chang-Sik
Fleckenstein, Lawrence
Pyronaridine–Artesunate Study Team
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Many debilitating symptoms arise from cancer and its treatment that are often unrelieved by established methods. Pranayama, a series of yogic breathing techniques, may improve cancer-related symptoms and quality of life, but it has not been studied for this purpose. OBJECTIVES: A pilot study was performed to evaluate feasibility and to test the effects of pranayama on cancer-associated symptoms and quality of life. DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing pranayama to usual care. SETTING: The study was conducted at a university medical center.

Author(s): 
Dhruva, Anand
Miaskowski, Christine
Abrams, Donald
Acree, Michael
Cooper, Bruce
Goodman, Steffanie
Hecht, Frederick M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Many debilitating symptoms arise from cancer and its treatment that are often unrelieved by established methods. Pranayama, a series of yogic breathing techniques, may improve cancer-related symptoms and quality of life, but it has not been studied for this purpose. OBJECTIVES: A pilot study was performed to evaluate feasibility and to test the effects of pranayama on cancer-associated symptoms and quality of life. DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing pranayama to usual care. SETTING: The study was conducted at a university medical center.

Author(s): 
Dhruva, Anand
Miaskowski, Christine
Abrams, Donald
Acree, Michael
Cooper, Bruce
Goodman, Steffanie
Hecht, Frederick M.
Publication Title: 
The Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials suggest that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is efficacious for care of cervicogenic headache (CGH). The effect of SMT dose on outcomes has not been studied. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of two doses of SMT and two doses of light massage (LM) for CGH. PATIENT SAMPLE: Eighty patients with chronic CGH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Modified Von Korff pain and disability scales for CGH and neck pain (minimum clinically important difference=10 on 100-point scale), number of headaches in the last 4 weeks, and medication use.

Author(s): 
Haas, Mitchell
Spegman, Adele
Peterson, David
Aickin, Mikel
Vavrek, Darcy

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