Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins

Publication Title: 
Microscopy Research and Technique

Many hormonal signals from peripheral tissues contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake. These regulators including leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, modulate the orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression in hypothalamic nuclei. The anti-aging effects of caloric restriction have been explained from an evolutional viewpoint of the adaptive response of the neuroendocrine and metabolic response systems to maximize survival during periods of food shortage.

Author(s): 
Chiba, Takuya
Yamaza, Haruyoshi
Higami, Yoshikazu
Shimokawa, Isao
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Author(s): 
Marx, Jean
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

The Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is a central orexigenic peptide leading to increased food intake when ubiquitously overexpressed. AgRP-deficient (AgRP(-/-)) mice have either no phenotype or present an age-related leanness. In this study, AgRP(-/-) mice were fed alternate high fat or low fat diets in an effort to determine whether AgRP is a mediating factor for the effects of dietary fat on metabolic parameters. There were no striking metabolic differences between AgRP(-/-) and the equally obese wild type littermates but AgRP(-/-) mice displayed a significantly longer lifespan.

Author(s): 
Redmann, Stephen M.
Argyropoulos, George
Publication Title: 
PLoS neglected tropical diseases

BACKGROUND: An unexpectedly high seroprevalence and pathogenic potential of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) have been observed in certain malaria-endemic countries in parallel with local use of chloroquine (CQ) as first-line treatment for malaria. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of CQ and other common antimalarial drugs on B19V infection in vitro and the possible epidemiological consequences for children from Papua New Guinea (PNG).

Author(s): 
Bönsch, Claudia
Kempf, Christoph
Mueller, Ivo
Manning, Laurens
Laman, Moses
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Ros, Carlos
Publication Title: 
PloS One

LEDGF/p75 interacts with DNA/protein to regulate gene expression and function. Despite the recognized diversity of function of LEDGF/p75, knowledge of its transregulation is in its infancy. Here we report that LEDGF/p75 gene is TATA-less, contains GC-rich cis elements and is transcriptionally regulated by Sp1 involving small ubiquitin-like modifier (Sumo1). Using different cell lines, we showed that Sp1 overexpression increased the level of LEDGF/p75 protein and mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent fashion.

Author(s): 
Singh, Dhirendra P.
Bhargavan, Biju
Chhunchha, Bhavana
Kubo, Eri
Kumar, Anil
Fatma, Nigar
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Our previous studies have shown that z-guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells by causing apoptosis. We now report a novel response to z-guggulsterone involving the inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The z-guggulsterone treatment inhibited capillary-like tube formation (in vitro neovascularization) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and migration by HUVEC and DU145 human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Dong
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Our previous studies have shown that z-guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells by causing apoptosis. We now report a novel response to z-guggulsterone involving the inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The z-guggulsterone treatment inhibited capillary-like tube formation (in vitro neovascularization) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and migration by HUVEC and DU145 human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Dong
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Osteoblast lineage-specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is a well regulated but poorly understood process. Both bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt signaling are implicated in regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here we analyzed the expression profiles of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with Wnt3A and osteogenic BMPs, and we identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a potential target of Wnt and BMP signaling.

Author(s): 
Luo, Qing
Kang, Quan
Si, Weike
Jiang, Wei
Park, Jong Kyung
Peng, Ying
Li, Xinmin
Luu, Hue H.
Luo, Jeffrey
Montag, Anthony G.
Haydon, Rex C.
He, Tong-Chuan
Publication Title: 
Kidney International

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at risk of developing several types of renal diseases, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), which is usually seen during late stages of infection in children with a high viral load. This disease is defined by the presence of proteinuria associated with mesangial hyperplasia and/or global-focal segmental glomerulosclerosis combined with microcystic transformation of the renal tubules. Because HIVAN can have an insidious clinical onset, renal biopsy is the only definitive way of establishing a diagnosis.

Author(s): 
Soler-García, Angel A.
Rakhmanina, Natella Y.
Mattison, Parnell C.
Ray, Patricio E.
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: To examine the mechanism of regulation of interleukin-18 (IL-18) bioactivity by IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) induction. METHODS: Levels of IL-18 and IL-18BPa in synovial fluid samples from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), followed by calculation of free IL-18.

Author(s): 
Marotte, Hubert
Ahmed, Salahuddin
Ruth, Jeffrey H.
Koch, Alisa E.

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