Elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with symptoms of depression, and disorders involving chronic inflammation are often co-morbid with major depression. Since healthy immune regulation is accomplished through counter-balancing effects of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, we hypothesized that depressed subjects (compared to controls) would express lower concentrations of the anti-inflammatory/immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and a higher IL-6/IL-10 ratio.
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), as well as in a number of chronic medical conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between peripheral inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in un-medicated subjects with MDD compared to non-depressed healthy controls and compared to subjects with MDD after antidepressant treatment. We examined the relationships between IL-6, IL-10, and the IL-6/IL-10 inflammatory ratio vs.
This study aims to explore and evaluate the effects of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts on the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IFN-?, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-4 in mice, and the regulative effect of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae on the cytokine system. Using an ELISA assay, the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-?, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-4 were examined in mice after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts. The results showed that the levels of IL-6 and IL-1?
Earlier studies in this laboratory have shown the potential of artemisinin-curcumin combination therapy in experimental malaria. In a parasite recrudescence model in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA), a single dose of alpha,beta-arteether (ART) with three oral doses of curcumin prevented recrudescence, providing almost 95% protection. The parasites were completely cleared in blood with ART-alone (AE) or ART+curcumin (AC) treatments in the short-term, although the clearance was faster in the latter case involving increased ROS generation.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin and its derivatives were reported to possess strong regulatory effects on inflammation and autoimmune diseases. This study was designed to examine the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of SM934, a water-soluble artemisinin analogue, on lupus-prone female NZB × NZW F(1) mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NZB/W F(1) mice were treated orally with SM934 for 3 or 6 months respectively to investigate the effect on clinical manifestations and immunological correlates.
The decreasing effectiveness of antimalarial therapy due to drug resistance necessitates constant efforts to develop new drugs. Artemisinin derivatives are the most recent drugs that have been introduced and are considered the first line of treatment, but there are already indications of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins. Consequently, drug combinations are recommended for prevention of the induction of resistance.
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
AIM: Excessive production of inflammatory mediators during invasive infection plays a key role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. In an attempt to improve survival of patients with this lethal syndrome, agents were developed to selectively inhibit mediators in this inflammatory response. Ulinastatin (UTI), a human protease inhibitor, inhibits the enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules. However, it is unknown if Ulinastatin treatment could result in protective effects for sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Ulinastatin on septic rats.
OBJECTIVES: In traditional medicine, plants have formed the basis of sophisticated systems that have been in existence for thousands of years and still provide mankind with new remedies. Cymbopogon martinii, known as palmarosa, has been used in aromatherapy as a skin tonic due to its antimicrobial properties. It has also used in Ayurvedic medicine for skin problems and to relieve nerve pain. The immunomodulatory action of C.?martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol was evaluated regarding the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?
Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
The Indian Monocellate Cobra venom (NKV) showed anti-arthritic activity over FCA induced arthritis in male albino rats. NKV treatment (1/20th & 1/10th MLD doses x 13 days, i.p.) showed significant restoration in paw & ankle volume, paw weight. Urinary hydroxyproline, glucosamine, serum ACP, ALP and IL-10 level were restored significantly, due to NKV treatment, as compared with arthritic rats. NKV also showed significant protection against arthritis induced oxidative damages.
Bacopa monnieri (L., BM) is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal herb recognised for its efficacy in relieving acute pain and inflammation, as related to selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme and consequent reduction in COX-2-mediated prostanoid mediators. BM is also associated with cognitive enhancing (nootropic) activity including improving memory free recall, observed after prolonged intake (>3 months).