Discoveries of immunomodulatory functions in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have suggested that they might have therapeutic utility in treating immune diseases. Recently, a novel MSC population was identified from dental pulp of human supernumerary teeth, and its multipotency characterized. Herein, we first examined the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory functions of human supernumerary tooth-derived stem cells (SNTSCs).
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our previous study showed that SM905, a novel artemisinin derivative, exhibited potent immunosuppressive activity. In this study, we evaluate preventive and therapeutic effect of SM905 on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice, and investigate its mechanisms both in inflammatory and autoimmune aspects of the disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: CIA was induced by type II bovine collagen (CII) in DBA/1 mice.
Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases depends upon interactions between the genetics of the individual and induction of chronic mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of dietary phenolics, caffeic acid and rutin, would suppress upregulation of inflammatory markers and intestinal damage in a mouse model of colitis. Colitis was induced in C3H/ HeOuJ mice (8 weeks old, 6 male/6 female per treatment) with 1.25% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 d in their drinking water.
Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been shown to be important regulators of the immune system. In particular, vitamin D and VDR deficiency exacerbates experimental autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD develops due to an immune-mediated attack by pathogenic T-cells that overproduce IL-17 and IFN-gamma and a few regulatory cells. VDR knockout mice have twice as many T-cells making IL-17 and IFN-gamma than wild-type mice.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immunological disorders of the gastrointestinal tract such as inflammatory bowel disease often result in recurrent and persistently elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) is involved in tumor necrosis factor-mediated colon epithelial cell survival, yet its role in chronic inflammation has not been defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that KSR1 is protective against spontaneous experimental colitis.
BACKGROUND: Abnormal regulation of the inflammatory response is an important component of diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS). Lipoic acid (LA) has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and is being pursued as a therapy for these diseases. We first reported that LA stimulates cAMP production via activation of G-protein coupled receptors and adenylyl cyclases. LA also suppressed NK cell activation and cytotoxicity.
Inflammation underlying immune pathology and tissue damage involves an intricate interplay between multiple immunological and biochemical mediators. Cytokines represent the key immune mediators that trigger a cascade of reactions that drive processes such as angiogenesis and proteolytic damage to tissues. IL-17 has now been shown to be a pivotal cytokine in many autoimmune diseases, supplanting the traditional Th1-Th2 paradigm. Also, the dual role of proinflammatory IFN-γ has unraveled new complexities in the cytokine biology of such disorders.
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract increases the risk of developing colon cancer especially in younger adults. Dietary compounds are not only associated with the etiology of inflammation and colon cancer but also in their prevention. Sphingolipid metabolites have been shown to play a role in the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory responses.
BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) are important signaling pathways constitutively activated during inflammation. We previously reported that high-fat diet (HFD) intake induces oxidative stress in the prostate through elevated expression of NADPH oxidase subunits causing NF-κB activation. We sought to determine whether Stat-3 is involved in the activation of NF-κB in the prostate as a result of HFD feeding, leading to inflammation. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were either fed with regular diet (RD) or HFD for 4 and 8 weeks.
Multiple pathways converge to result in the overexpression of T(h)17 cells in the absence of either vitamin D or the vitamin D receptor (VDR). CD4(+) T cells from VDR knockout (KO) mice have a more activated phenotype than their wild-type (WT) counterparts and readily develop into T(h)17 cells under a variety of in vitro conditions. Vitamin D-deficient CD4(+) T cells also overproduced IL-17 in vitro and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibited the development of T(h)17 cells in CD4(+) T-cell cultures.