OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the anti-arthritic effect of Terminalia chebula hydroalcoholic extract (TCHE) in experimental models and attempts to correlate the effect of treatment on macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and extent of disease activity. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in rats by subplantar administration of either formaldehyde or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Joint size was measured at regular intervals by using a micrometer screw gauge.
Neutrophils are major cells participants in innate host responses. They are short-lived leukocytes, although microbial products activate intracellular signaling cascades that prolong their survival by inhibiting constitutive apoptosis. To gain insight into the phylogeny of this important cell type, we examined the ability of toll-like receptor agonists to extend the lifespan of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) acidophilic granulocytes, which are the functional equivalent of mammalian neutrophils.
Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (cC) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that may influence immune response. Our aim was to test the effect of a high concentration of cC, characteristic for uremic patients, on neutrophil (PMN) apoptosis and respiratory burst, as well as the cC secretion from PMNs stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. MATERIAL/METHODS: PMNs from 35 healthy volunteers aged 27-61 years were cultured in presence of cC, IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. The percentage of apoptotic cells based on DNA depletion, Fas, FasL and caspase -3 expression were assessed.
Cognitive and affective responses to acute stress influence pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity, and peripheral cytokines (particularly interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?)), can act on the brain to promote depressive symptoms. It is unknown whether acute stress-induced changes in positive affect and cognitions (POS) and pro-inflammatory reactivity predict future depressive symptoms. We examined acute stress responses among women, to determine prospective predictors of depressive symptoms.
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia and patients with this syndrome have a pro-inflammatory phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory phenotype in schizophrenia is associated with childhood trauma and that patients without a history of such trauma have a similar immune profile to healthy controls. METHOD: We recruited 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 controls, all of whom completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aging is the predominant risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. One key phenotype as the brain ages is an aberrant innate immune response characterized by proinflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aging-associated proinflammation are poorly defined. Whether chronic inflammation plays a causal role in cognitive decline in aging and neurodegeneration has not been established. Here we report a mechanistic link between chronic inflammation and aging microglia and a causal role of aging microglia in neurodegenerative cognitive deficits.
This study aims to explore and evaluate the effects of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts on the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IFN-?, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-4 in mice, and the regulative effect of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae on the cytokine system. Using an ELISA assay, the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-?, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-4 were examined in mice after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts. The results showed that the levels of IL-6 and IL-1?
Malarial pigment (natural haemozoin, HZ) is a ferriprotoporphyrin IX crystal produced by Plasmodium parasites after haemoglobin catabolism. HZ-fed human monocytes are functionally compromised, releasing increased amounts of pro-inflammatory molecules, including cytokines, chemokines and cytokine-related proteolytic enzyme Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), whose role in complicated malaria has been recently suggested. In a previous work HZ was shown to induce through TNFalpha production the release of monocytic lysozyme, an enzyme stored in gelatinase granules with MMP-9.
BACKGROUND: Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. FINDINGS: Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7.
Semecarpus anacardium (SA) Linn. (family Anacardiaceae), is a plant well-known for its medicinal value in Ayurveda. The nut extracts of this plant have been traditionally used as antihelminthic, anti-fungal, anti-carcinogenic and in the treatment of nervous debilities and arthritis. In this study we have evaluated crude ethanolic extract of SA nuts for its anti-inflammatory activities in vitro using peripheral blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells of healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.