Intervention Studies

Publication Title: 
Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress

Workplace stress is high among healthcare professionals (HCPs) and is associated with reduced psychological health, quality of care and patient satisfaction. This systematic review and meta-analysis reviews evidence on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for reducing stress in HCPs. A systematic literature search was conducted. Papers were screened for suitability using inclusion criteria and nine papers were subjected to review and quality assessment. Seven papers, for which full statistical findings could be obtained, were also subjected to meta-analysis.

Author(s): 
Burton, Amy
Burgess, Catherine
Dean, Sarah
Koutsopoulou, Gina Z.
Hugh-Jones, Siobhan
Publication Title: 
The Lancet Oncology

BACKGROUND: Telomere shortness in human beings is a prognostic marker of ageing, disease, and premature morbidity. We previously found an association between 3 months of comprehensive lifestyle changes and increased telomerase activity in human immune-system cells. We followed up participants to investigate long-term effects. METHODS: This follow-up study compared ten men and 25 external controls who had biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer and had chosen to undergo active surveillance.

Author(s): 
Ornish, Dean
Lin, Jue
Chan, June M.
Epel, Elissa
Kemp, Colleen
Weidner, Gerdi
Marlin, Ruth
Frenda, Steven J.
Magbanua, Mark Jesus M.
Daubenmier, Jennifer
Estay, Ivette
Hills, Nancy K.
Chainani-Wu, Nita
Carroll, Peter R.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress and metabolic dysregulation are associated with markers of accelerated cellular aging, including reduced telomerase activity and shortened telomere length. We examined whether participation in a mindfulness-based intervention, and, secondarily, improvements in psychological distress, eating behavior, and metabolic factors are associated with increases in telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

Author(s): 
Daubenmier, Jennifer
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Hecht, Frederick M.
Kristeller, Jean
Maninger, Nicole
Kuwata, Margaret
Bacchetti, Peter
Havel, Peter J.
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
The Lancet Oncology

BACKGROUND: Telomere shortness in human beings is a prognostic marker of ageing, disease, and premature morbidity. We previously found an association between 3 months of comprehensive lifestyle changes and increased telomerase activity in human immune-system cells. We followed up participants to investigate long-term effects. METHODS: This follow-up study compared ten men and 25 external controls who had biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer and had chosen to undergo active surveillance.

Author(s): 
Ornish, Dean
Lin, Jue
Chan, June M.
Epel, Elissa
Kemp, Colleen
Weidner, Gerdi
Marlin, Ruth
Frenda, Steven J.
Magbanua, Mark Jesus M.
Daubenmier, Jennifer
Estay, Ivette
Hills, Nancy K.
Chainani-Wu, Nita
Carroll, Peter R.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress and metabolic dysregulation are associated with markers of accelerated cellular aging, including reduced telomerase activity and shortened telomere length. We examined whether participation in a mindfulness-based intervention, and, secondarily, improvements in psychological distress, eating behavior, and metabolic factors are associated with increases in telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

Author(s): 
Daubenmier, Jennifer
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Hecht, Frederick M.
Kristeller, Jean
Maninger, Nicole
Kuwata, Margaret
Bacchetti, Peter
Havel, Peter J.
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP

The purposes of this research study were: (1) to determine whether changes in cardiac rate, skin temperature, and/or electrodermal activity occur as children change mental imagery and (2) to determine whether such changes are related to age, sex, or other variables. Children who were evaluated in this study had no previous experience with hypnosis or biofeedback training and were in good health with no learning disabilities. Thirty-eight boys and 38 girls ranging in age from 5 to 15 years were studied in a comfortable setting with a constant room temperature and biofeedback equipment.

Author(s): 
Lee, L. H.
Olness, K. N.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

During exposure to pain, participants who were engaged in hypnotic analgesia or stress inoculation provided pain reports every 5 s and 45 s, respectively. It was found that the frequency of pain reporting had a significant effect on participants' level of experienced pain. This finding is discussed in the context of important methodological implications for laboratory investigations of analgesia. Furthermore, preliminary evidence was obtained suggesting that high hypnotizables in hypnotic analgesia remained relatively undisrupted by frequent pain reporting.

Author(s): 
Eastwood, J. D.
Gaskovski, P.
Bowers, K. S.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Fifteen adults with chronic low back pain (M = 4 years), age 18 to 43 years (M = 29 years), participated. All but one were moderately to highly hypnotizable (M = 7.87; modified 11-point Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C [Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962]), and significantly reduced pain perception following hypnotic analgesia instructions during cold-pressor pain training.

Author(s): 
Crawford, H. J.
Knebel, T.
Kaplan, L.
Vendemia, J. M.
Xie, M.
Jamison, S.
Pribram, K. H.
Publication Title: 
Acta Oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)

Behavioral interventions used to reduce distress and increase cooperation in children undergoing cancer treatment incorporate: contingency management, cognitive/attentional distraction, hypnosis, systematic desensitization, modeling and behavioral rehearsal. In most cases clinical interventions integrate these procedures into a multimodal intervention package. Although in most behavioral interventions the 'therapist' is a nurse, social worker or child psychologist; parents often take an active role in behavioral intervention.

Author(s): 
DuHamel, K. N.
Redd, W. H.
Vickberg, S. M.
Publication Title: 
Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

This article reviews evidence for the hypothesis that psychological interventions can modulate the immune response in humans and presents a series of models depicting the psychobiological pathways through which this might occur. Although more than 85 trials have been conducted, meta-analyses reveal only modest evidence that interventions can reliably alter immune parameters. The most consistent evidence emerges from hypnosis and conditioning trials. Disclosure and stress management show scattered evidence of success. Relaxation demonstrates little capacity to elicit immune change.

Author(s): 
Miller, G. E.
Cohen, S.

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