Intestinal Mucosa

Publication Title: 
Inflammopharmacology

The present study has evaluated the healing effects of extract of dried fruit pulp of Terminalia chebula (TCE) on acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats. TCE (600 mg/kg) showed healing effects against AA-induced colonic damage score and weight when administered orally daily for 14 days. TCE was further studied for its effects on various physical (mucus/blood in stool and stool frequency, food and water intake and body weight changes), histology, antibacterial activity and free radicals (NO and LPO), antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) and myeloperoxidase in colonic tissue.

Author(s): 
Gautam, M. K.
Goel, Shalini
Ghatule, R. R.
Singh, A.
Nath, G.
Goel, R. K.
Publication Title: 
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Alterations in motility, secretion and visceral sensation are hallmarks of irritable bowel syndrome. As all of these aspects of gastrointestinal function involve serotonin signalling between enterochromaffin cells and sensory nerve fibres in the mucosal layer of the gut, potential alterations in mucosal serotonin signalling have been explored as a possible mechanism of altered function and sensation in irritable bowel syndrome. Literature related to intestinal serotonin signalling in normal and pathophysiological conditions has been searched and summarized.

Author(s): 
Mawe, G. M.
Coates, M. D.
Moses, P. L.
Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America

Irritable bowel syndrome can remit spontaneously, implying cure is possible. Predictors of good prognosis include a short history, acute onset(possibly postinfective origin), absence of psychological disorders, and resolution of chronic life stressors. Possible-disease modifying treatments with long-lasting effects include diet and anti-inflammatory and psychological treatments. Dietary modifications, which often involve excluding dairy and wheat products, are successful in some patients. Anti-inflammatory treatments have been subjected to one RCT in postinfective IBS without benefit.

Author(s): 
Spiller, Robin C.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Gastroenterology

OBJECTIVES: Hypnotherapy is effective in several diseases with a psychosomatic component. Our aim was to study the effects of one session of hypnosis on the systemic and rectal mucosal inflammatory responses in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: In total, 17 patients with active UC underwent a 50-min session of gut-focused hypnotherapy.

Author(s): 
Mawdsley, Joel E.
Jenkins, David G.
Macey, Marion G.
Langmead, Louise
Rampton, David S.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

Sodium artesunate (SA), a synthetic derivative of artemisinin first isolated in China, is a water soluble antimalaria used clinically in China. The jejunum of mouse was mounted in Ussing chambers and bathed in NaCl Ringer. There was a potential difference (PD) across the intestinal wall with the serosa being positive. Addition of SA to the mucosal side of the D-glucose (5.5 mmol/L) NaCl Ringer bathing solution, caused a significant decrease in both PD and short circuit current (I(sc)). However, SA had little effect when added to the glucose free Ringer bathing solution.

Author(s): 
Wang, J. Y.
Yuan, L. Z.
Wang, M. D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

A polyherbal ayurvedic formulation from an ancient authentic classical text of ayurveda was evaluated for its activity against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The polyherbal formulation contained four different drugs viz., Bilwa (Aegle marmeloes), Dhanyak (Coriandrum sativum), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vala (Vetiveria zinzanioids).

Author(s): 
Jagtap, A. G.
Shirke, S. S.
Phadke, A. S.
Publication Title: 
BioFactors (Oxford, England)

Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium.

Author(s): 
Oda, Yuriko
Ueda, Fumitaka
Kamei, Asuka
Kakinuma, Chihaya
Abe, Keiko
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology

The Salmonella effector protein SigD is an inositol phosphate phosphatase that inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits chloride secretion via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, we explored whether Salmonella infection might modify the inhibitory effect of EGF. As expected, EGF inhibited chloride secretion induced by carbachol in T(84) epithelial cells. Infection with wild-type (WT) but not sigD(-) mutant S. typhimurium SL1344 decreased CCh-stimulated chloride secretion.

Author(s): 
Bertelsen, Lone S.
Paesold, Günther
Marcus, Sandra L.
Finlay, Brett B.
Eckmann, Lars
Barrett, Kim E.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Extracts from Boswellia serrata have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity, primarily via boswellic acid-mediated inhibition of leukotriene synthesis. In three small clinical trials, boswellia was shown to improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and because of its alleged safety, boswellia was considered superior over mesalazine in terms of a benefit-risk evaluation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of boswellia extracts in controlled settings of dextran sulfate- or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.

Author(s): 
Kiela, Pawel R.
Midura, Anna J.
Kuscuoglu, Nesrin
Jolad, Shivanand D.
Sólyom, Aniko M.
Besselsen, David G.
Timmermann, Barbara N.
Ghishan, Fayez K.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

P-glycoprotein, the product of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene, is a xenobiotic transporter that may contribute to the physiology of the intestinal barrier. Twenty-five percent of mdr1a-deficient (mdr1a(-/-)) mice spontaneously develop colitis at variable ages when maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. We hypothesized that this disease would result from epithelial dysfunction and that conventional housing would increase incidence and severity of the colitis phenotype. Wild-type congenic FVB (+/+) mice were maintained under the same conditions as controls.

Author(s): 
Resta-Lenert, Silvia
Smitham, Jane
Barrett, Kim E.

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