Intestine, Small

Publication Title: 
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Gastrointestinal dysmotility in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is prevalent in 90% of patients, increasing morbidity and in some cases mortality. The resultant gastrointestinal complications are usually extensive, involving many regions of the gut from the oesophagus to the anus. Collagen replacement of vascular and enteric smooth muscle results in hypomotility, lumen dilatation, tensile rigidity and eventual loss of organ functions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of systemic sclerosis-related gastrointestinal dysmotility and available/potential therapeutic options.

Author(s): 
Sallam, H.
McNearney, T. A.
Chen, J. D. Z.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Author(s): 
Nariya, Mukeshkumar
Shukla, Vinay
Jain, Sunita
Ravishankar, Basavaiah
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Author(s): 
Nariya, Mukeshkumar
Shukla, Vinay
Jain, Sunita
Ravishankar, Basavaiah
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the intestinal and microbial disposition of flavonoids and how these disposition processes affect their enteric recycling. DESIGN: Studies were performed using a perfused rat intestinal model or using enrichment cultures and a pure isolate of Enterococcus avium (LY1). RESULTS: In the rat intestine, aglycones, such as quercetin and apigenin, were as permeable (P*(eff) > or = 2) as compounds such as propranolol (100% absorption).

Author(s): 
Liu, Yong
Liu, Yan
Dai, Yang
Xun, Luying
Hu, Ming
Publication Title: 
Vaccine

We examined rotavirus-specific IFN-gamma producing CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ T cell responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with a virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV) or vaccinated with an attenuated (Att) HRV vaccine (AttHRV3x or AttHRV2x) or an AttHRV oral priming and 2/6-virus-like particle (VLP) intranasal boosting (AttHRV-2/6VLP) regimen. In VirHRV infected pigs, HRV-specific IFN-gamma producing T cells reside primarily in ileum. AttHRV-2/6VLP induced similar frequencies of intestinal IFN-gamma producing T cells as the VirHRV, whereas AttHRV3x or 2x vaccines were less effective.

Author(s): 
Yuan, Lijuan
Wen, Ke
Azevedo, Marli S. P.
Gonzalez, Ana M.
Zhang, Wei
Saif, Linda J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Gastroenterology

Some studies indicate that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), as measured by hydrogen breath tests (HBT), is more prevalent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) vs. matched controls without IBS. Although the data are conflicting, this observation has led to the hypothesis that SIBO may be a primary cause of IBS. Yet, it remains unclear whether SIBO is truly fundamental to the pathophysiology of IBS, or is instead a mere epiphenomenon or bystander of something else altogether.

Author(s): 
Spiegel, Brennan M. R.
Chey, William D.
Chang, Lin
Publication Title: 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)

Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE) against intestinal/colon cancer development are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(min/+) mice. Female APC(min/+) mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt/wt) mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps by 40%. The decrease in polyp formation in the small intestine was 42%, which was mostly in its middle (51%) and distal (49%) portions compared with the proximal one.

Author(s): 
Velmurugan, Balaiya
Singh, Rana P.
Kaul, Nidhi
Agarwal, Rajesh
Agarwal, Chapla
Publication Title: 
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

SCOPE: Green tea has been shown to ameliorate symptoms of metabolic syndrome in vivo. The effects could be due, in part, to modulation of postprandial blood glucose levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effect of coadministration of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 100 mg/kg, i.g.) on blood glucose levels following oral administration of common corn starch (CCS), maltose, sucrose, or glucose to fasted CF-1 mice.

Author(s): 
Forester, Sarah C.
Gu, Yeyi
Lambert, Joshua D.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Glycyrrhizin, an abundant bioactive component of the medicinal licorice root is rapidly metabolized by gut commensal bacteria into 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA). Either or both of these compounds have been shown to have antiviral, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, anti-tumor, anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro or in vivo. In this study, the ability of GRA to modulate immune responses at the small intestinal mucosa when delivered orally was investigated.

Author(s): 
Hendricks, Jay M.
Hoffman, Carol
Pascual, David W.
Hardy, Michele E.
Publication Title: 
Lipids in Health and Disease

BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering LDL-C, emerging data suggests that phytosterols (PS) may reduce blood triglycerides (TG), however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. METHODS: We examined the TG-lowering mechanisms of dietary PS in Syrian golden hamsters randomly assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet supplemented with PS (2%) for 6 weeks (n = 12/group). An additional subset of animals (n = 12) was provided the HF diet supplemented with ezetimibe (EZ, 0.002%) as a positive control as it is a cholesterol-lowering agent with known TG-lowering properties.

Author(s): 
Rideout, Todd C.
Ramprasath, Vanu
Griffin, John D.
Browne, Richard W.
Harding, Scott V.
Jones, Peter J. H.

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