The thrifty aged hypothesis (TAH) holds that aging is a "saving program", a set of strategies all of them focused to reduce energy consumption in the post-reproductive age. Aged adults remove fewer energy resources from the environment, and the remaining fuel can be profitably used by offspring. Thus, from an evolutionary point of view, the variable submitted to natural selection would be the amount of energy removed by post-reproductive individuals from the environment, favoring "reduced energy extraction" (REE) strategies.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Based on interim results from an ongoing study, we have reported that consumption of a high-fructose diet, but not a high-glucose diet, promotes the development of three of the pathological characteristics associated with metabolic syndrome: visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. From these results and a review of the current literature, we present two potential sequences of events by which fructose consumption may contribute to metabolic syndrome.
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasing, creating a need for T2DM animal models for the study of disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. The purpose of this project was to develop a rat model of T2DM that more closely models the pathophysiology of T2DM in humans. The model was created by crossing obese Sprague-Dawley rats with insulin resistance resulting from polygenic adult-onset obesity with Zucker diabetic fatty-lean rats that have a defect in pancreatic beta-cell function but normal leptin signaling.
The metabolic syndrome is a complex clustering of metabolic defects associated with physical inactivity, abdominal adiposity, and aging. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat (AVF) and body composition in obese women with the metabolic syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Switching a thymidine analogue to a non-thymidine analogue or changing to a nucleoside-sparing regimen has been shown to partially reverse peripheral lipoatrophy. The current study evaluated both approaches.
Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks. Although both groups exhibited similar weight gain during the intervention, visceral adipose volume was significantly increased only in subjects consuming fructose.
Clinical evidence indicates that fat is inversely proportional to bone mass in elderly obese women. However, it remains unclear whether obesity accelerates bone loss. In this report we present evidence that increased visceral fat leads to inflammation and subsequent bone loss in 12-month-old C57BL/6J mice that were fed 10% corn oil (CO)-based diet and a control lab chow (LC) for 6 months. As expected from our previous work, CO-fed mice demonstrated increased visceral fat and enhanced total body fat mass compared to LC.
Stress in early life negatively influences growth quality through perturbations in body composition including increased fat mass. At term (40 weeks) preterm infants have greater fat mass and abdominal visceral adipose tissue than term-born infants. Mechanical-tactile stimulation (MTS) attenuates the stress response in preterm infants and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that MTS, administered during an established model of neonatal stress, would decrease stress-driven adiposity and prevent associated metabolic imbalances in rat pups.
Plant extracts continue to represent an untapped source of renewable therapeutic compounds for the treatment and prevention of illnesses including chronic metabolic disorders. With the increase in worldwide obesity and its related morbidities, the need for identifying safe and effective treatments is also rising. As such, use of primary human adipose-derived stem cells represents a physiologically relevant cell system to screen for bioactive agents in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related complications.
Insulin resistance and loss of β-cell mass cause Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to generate a nongenetic mouse model of T2D. Ninety-six 6-month-old C57BL/6N males were assigned to 1 of 12 groups including (1) low-fat diet (LFD; low-fat control; LFC), (2) LFD with 1 i.p. 40 mg/kg BW streptozotocin (STZ) injection, (3), (4), (5), (6) LFD with 2, 3, 4, or 5 STZ injections on consecutive days, respectively, (7) high-fat diet (HFD), (8) HFD with 1 STZ injection, (9), (10), (11), (12) HFD with 2, 3, 4, or 5 STZ injections on consecutive days, respectively.