The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recently provided an update to the guidelines published in 1995 on the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Members of the Ad Hoc Committee on OA Guidelines followed an evidence-based medicine approach to revise the guidelines by reviewing an extensive literature search of the Cochrane and Medline databases and published abstracts, and discussing evidence with expert rheumatologists.
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT; the catalytic protein subunit of telomerase) is subjected to numerous alternative splicing events, but the regulation and function of these splice variants is obscure. Full-length hTERT includes conserved domains that encode reverse transcriptase activity, RNA binding, and other functions. The major splice variant termed ?+?- or ?-deletion is highly expressed in stem and cancer cells, where it codes for a truncated protein lacking most of the reverse transcriptase domain but retaining the known RNA-binding motifs.
Covalent modifications of DNA and its surrounding chromatin constitute an essential and powerful regulatory mechanism for gene transcription. Epigenetics is the study of this regulatory system. There is now strong albeit indirect evidence that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, the discovery that valproic acid, a widely used psychotropic, has powerful epigenetic effects in clinically relevant concentrations suggests new therapeutic possibilities, i.e., drugs that act on chromatin structure.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The polygenic nature of complex psychiatric disorders suggests a common pathway that may be involved in the down-regulation of multiple genes through an epigenetic mechanism. To investigate the role of methylation in down-regulating the expression of mRNAs that may be associated with the schizophrenia phenotype, we have adopted a cell-culture model amenable to this line of investigation.
Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996)
DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are involved within the epigenetic control of DNA methylation processes. Recently, it has been shown that the genomic DNA methylation in patients with alcoholism is increased. In the present controlled study we observed a significant decrease of mRNA expression of DNMT-3a and DNMT-3b when comparing alcoholic patients (n = 59) with healthy controls (n = 66): DNMT-3a (t = -2.38, p = 0.019), DNMT-3b (t = -2.65, p = 0.008). No significant differences were seen for DNMT-1 and Mbd-2 (Methyl-CpG-Binding-Domain protein 2) expression.
A recent report suggests that the down-regulation of reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(67)) mRNAs represents 2 of the more consistent findings thus far described in post-mortem material from schizophrenia (SZ) patients [reviewed in. Neurochemical markers for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder amd major depression in postmortem brains. Biol Psychiatry 57, 252-260]. To study mechanisms responsible for this down-regulation, we have analyzed the promoter of the human reelin gene.
Reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNAs and protein levels are substantially reduced in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. Increasing evidence suggests that the observed down-regulation of reelin and GAD67 gene expression may be caused by dysfunction of the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms operative in cortical GABAergic interneurons.
Among the most consistent results of studies of post-mortem brain tissue from schizophrenia patients (SZP) is the finding that in this disease, several genes expressed by GABAergic neurons are downregulated. This downregulation may be caused by hypermethylation of the relevant promoters in affected neurons. Indeed, increased numbers of GABAergic interneurons expressing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) mRNA have been demonstrated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SZP using in situ hybridization.
AIMS: The study aimed to identify the specific human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of artemisinin. METHODS: Microsomes from human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed with individual CYP450 cDNAs were investigated for their capacity to metabolize artemisinin. The effect on artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by chemical inhibitors selective for individual forms of CYP450 was investigated.
The anti-malarial artesunate (ART) also inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The active moiety is an endoperoxide bridge whose cleavage generates reactive oxygen species and free radicals. We analyzed whether glutathione-related enzymes contribute to tumor resistance to ART and to the low toxicity of ART towards normal organs.