JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association
CONTEXT: Individuals with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To identify specific biological and genetic factors that are associated with or reliably define a human longevity phenotype.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is auxotrophic for most amino acids. Its amino acid needs are met largely through the degradation of host erythrocyte hemoglobin; however the parasite must acquire isoleucine exogenously, because this amino acid is not present in adult human hemoglobin. We report that when isoleucine is withdrawn from the culture medium of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum, the parasite slows its metabolism and progresses through its developmental cycle at a reduced rate.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether L-isoleucine was effective in the treatment of hot flushes and whether L-isoleucine, L-valine, or the combination of both amino acids reduced fasting serum homocysteine. METHODS: After a 1-week baseline period, 100 postmenopausal women experiencing at least five moderate-severe hot flushes per day were randomized with equal probability to one of four groups (phase 1/phase 2): placebo/L-valine, placebo/L-valine and L-isoleucine, L-isoleucine/L-valine, and L-isoleucine/L-valine and L-isoleucine. Phase 1 was 12 weeks long, and phase 2 was 10 weeks long.