Jejunum

Publication Title: 
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND: Gut-directed hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but little is known about the mechanisms of action. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects on gastrointestinal motility when treating IBS with gut-directed hypnotherapy. METHODS: We randomized 90 patients with IBS, refractory to standard management to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy 1 h/week for 12 weeks or supportive treatment for the same time period.

Author(s): 
Lindfors, Perjohan
Törnblom, Hans
Sadik, Riadh
Björnsson, Einar S.
Abrahamsson, Hasse
Simrén, Magnus
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

Sodium artesunate (SA), a synthetic derivative of artemisinin first isolated in China, is a water soluble antimalaria used clinically in China. The jejunum of mouse was mounted in Ussing chambers and bathed in NaCl Ringer. There was a potential difference (PD) across the intestinal wall with the serosa being positive. Addition of SA to the mucosal side of the D-glucose (5.5 mmol/L) NaCl Ringer bathing solution, caused a significant decrease in both PD and short circuit current (I(sc)). However, SA had little effect when added to the glucose free Ringer bathing solution.

Author(s): 
Wang, J. Y.
Yuan, L. Z.
Wang, M. D.
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

The objective of this study was to investigate whether the decrease in artemisinin bioavailability after repeated oral dosing in humans can be a result of increased efflux of artemisinin by P-glycoprotein or decreased membrane transport at the intestinal barrier. The effective jejunal permeability (Peff) of artemisinin was investigated using an in situ rat perfusion model. Fifty-four rats were randomized to one of three treatment arms: no pretreatment, pretreatment with artemisinin emulsion for 5 days (60 mg/kg/day, p.o. ), or pretreatment with emulsion vehicle for 5 days.

Author(s): 
Svensson, U. S.
Sandström, R.
Carlborg, O.
Lennernäs, H.
Ashton, M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

The (n-3) PUFAs 20:5 (n-3) (EPA) and 22:6 (n-3) (DHA) are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion. The development of oxidation products during digestion and the potential effects on intestinal PUFA uptake are incompletely understood.

Author(s): 
Maestre, Rodrigo
Douglass, John D.
Kodukula, Sarala
Medina, Isabel
Storch, Judith
Publication Title: 
Pediatrics

Midgut volvulus due to malrotation may result in loss of the small bowel. Until now, after derotation of the volvulus, pediatric surgeons do not deal with the mesenteric thrombosis, which causes continuing ischemia of the intestine. On occasion, a "second look" laparotomy is performed in the hope that some improvement in blood supply to the intestine has occurred. We describe a new combined treatment to restore intestinal perfusion based on digital massage of the superior mesenteric vessels after derotation and systemic infusion of tissue-type plasminogen activator.

Author(s): 
Kiely, Edward M.
Pierro, Agostino
Pierce, Christine
Cross, Kate
De Coppi, Paolo
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Entandrophragma angolense is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine against several diseases including peptic ulcer. Methyl angolensate was isolated from E. angolense by recrystallization from methanol. The needle-like crystals were characterized and tested on isolated rabbit jejunum, guinea pig ileum and the rat fundus strip. The compound was also evaluated on the gastrointestinal transit in mice. The results showed that the compound exerted significant concentration dependent inhibition of smooth muscle and reduced the propulsive action of the gastrointestinal tract in mice.

Author(s): 
Orisadipe, A.
Amos, S.
Adesomoju, A.
Binda, L.
Emeje, M.
Okogun, J.
Wambebe, C.
Gamaniel, K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Animal Science

The objectives were to evaluate effects of maternal nutrient restriction and stage of gestation on maternal and fetal visceral organ mass and indices of jejunal growth and vascularity in beef cows.

Author(s): 
Meyer, A. M.
Reed, J. J.
Vonnahme, K. A.
Soto-Navarro, S. A.
Reynolds, L. P.
Ford, S. P.
Hess, B. W.
Caton, J. S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Physiology

1. Defined jejunal segments were perfused with solutions of bile salts and of ricinoleic acid during fasting and after feeding in two groups of conscious dogs, one with the segment in continuity, and the other with a Thirty-Vella loop. Myoelectric activity was recorded from chronically implanted electrodes on the jejunal segment and also from the proximal and distal in situ bowel.2. The results in both groups were identical.

Author(s): 
Da Cunha Melo, J.
Summers, R. W.
Thompson, H. H.
Wingate, D. L.
Yanda, R.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Surgery

Since February 1, 1980, the identical standardized Greenville Gastric Bypass has been performed in 397 morbidly obese patients with an operative mortality rate of 0.8%. The operation effectively controlled weight and maintained satisfactory weight loss even after 6 years (mean weights and ranges: Preoperative: 290 lbs (196-535); 18 months: 175 lbs (110-300); 72 months: 205 lbs (140-320). The gastric bypass favorably affected non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), hypertension, physical and role functioning, and several measures of mental health.

Author(s): 
Pories, W. J.
Caro, J. F.
Flickinger, E. G.
Meelheim, H. D.
Swanson, M. S.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Glycyrrhizae radix is used to treat abdominal pain as a component of shakuyakukanzoto (shaoyao-gancao-tang), a traditional Chinese medicine formulation. Previously, we have reported the isolation of glycycoumarin as a potent antispasmodic with an IC50 value of 2.93+/-0.94 microM for carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced contraction of mouse jejunum from an aqueous extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (licorice), and clarified that its mechanism of action involves inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3.

Author(s): 
Sato, Yuji
He, Ju-Xiu
Nagai, Hidemasa
Tani, Tadato
Akao, Teruaki

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