Judgment

Publication Title: 
Medical Care

BACKGROUND: Clinical trial evidence in controversial areas such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) must be approached with an open mind. OBJECTIVE: To determine what factors may influence practitioners' interpretation of evidence from CAM trials. RESEARCH DESIGN: In a mailed survey of 2400 US CAM and conventional medicine practitioners we included 2 hypothetical factorial vignettes of positive and negative research results for CAM clinical trials. Vignettes contained randomly varied journal (Annals of Internal Medicine vs.

Author(s): 
Tilburt, Jon C.
Miller, Franklin G.
Jenkins, Sarah
Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Clarridge, Brian
Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana
Emanuel, Ezekiel J.
Curlin, Farr A.
Publication Title: 
Medical Care

BACKGROUND: Clinical trial evidence in controversial areas such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) must be approached with an open mind. OBJECTIVE: To determine what factors may influence practitioners' interpretation of evidence from CAM trials. RESEARCH DESIGN: In a mailed survey of 2400 US CAM and conventional medicine practitioners we included 2 hypothetical factorial vignettes of positive and negative research results for CAM clinical trials. Vignettes contained randomly varied journal (Annals of Internal Medicine vs.

Author(s): 
Tilburt, Jon C.
Miller, Franklin G.
Jenkins, Sarah
Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Clarridge, Brian
Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana
Emanuel, Ezekiel J.
Curlin, Farr A.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Assessment

Improvements in stable, or dispositional, mindfulness are often assumed to accrue from mindfulness training and to account for many of its beneficial effects. However, research examining these assumptions has produced mixed findings, and the relation between dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training is actively debated.

Author(s): 
Quaglia, Jordan T.
Braun, Sarah E.
Freeman, Sara P.
McDaniel, Michael A.
Brown, Kirk Warren
Publication Title: 
Medical Care

BACKGROUND: Clinical trial evidence in controversial areas such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) must be approached with an open mind. OBJECTIVE: To determine what factors may influence practitioners' interpretation of evidence from CAM trials. RESEARCH DESIGN: In a mailed survey of 2400 US CAM and conventional medicine practitioners we included 2 hypothetical factorial vignettes of positive and negative research results for CAM clinical trials. Vignettes contained randomly varied journal (Annals of Internal Medicine vs.

Author(s): 
Tilburt, Jon C.
Miller, Franklin G.
Jenkins, Sarah
Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Clarridge, Brian
Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana
Emanuel, Ezekiel J.
Curlin, Farr A.
Publication Title: 
Medical Care

BACKGROUND: Clinical trial evidence in controversial areas such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) must be approached with an open mind. OBJECTIVE: To determine what factors may influence practitioners' interpretation of evidence from CAM trials. RESEARCH DESIGN: In a mailed survey of 2400 US CAM and conventional medicine practitioners we included 2 hypothetical factorial vignettes of positive and negative research results for CAM clinical trials. Vignettes contained randomly varied journal (Annals of Internal Medicine vs.

Author(s): 
Tilburt, Jon C.
Miller, Franklin G.
Jenkins, Sarah
Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Clarridge, Brian
Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana
Emanuel, Ezekiel J.
Curlin, Farr A.
Publication Title: 
Applied Psychology. Health and Well-Being

BACKGROUND: This research was conducted to examine whether people high in emotional intelligence (EI) have greater well-being than people low in EI. METHOD: The Situational Test of Emotion Management, Scales of Psychological Well-being, and Day Reconstruction Method were completed by 131 college students. RESULTS: Responses to the Situational Test of Emotion Management were strongly related to eudaimonic well-being as measured by responses on the Scales of Psychological Well-being (r=.54).

Author(s): 
Burrus, Jeremy
Betancourt, Anthony
Holtzman, Steven
Minsky, Jennifer
MacCann, Carolyn
Roberts, Richard D.
Publication Title: 
Behavior Therapy

Overestimating the occurrence of threatening events has been highlighted as a central cognitive factor in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examined the different facets of this cognitive bias, its underlying mechanisms, and its specificity to OCD. For this purpose, threat estimation, probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and psychopathological measures were assessed in 23 participants with OCD, 30 participants with social phobia, and 31 healthy controls.

Author(s): 
Zetsche, Ulrike
Rief, Winfried
Exner, Cornelia
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Two forms of thinking about the future are distinguished: expectations versus fantasies. Positive expectations (judging a desired future as likely) predicted high effort and successful performance, but the reverse was true for positive fantasies (experiencing one's thoughts and mental images about a desired future positively). Participants were graduates looking for a job (Study 1), students with a crush on a peer of the opposite sex (Study 2), undergraduates anticipating an exam (Study 3), and patients undergoing hip-replacement surgery (Study 4).

Author(s): 
Oettingen, Gabriele
Mayer, Doris
Publication Title: 
Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Although a number of studies have explored the ways that men and women romantically attract mates, almost no research exists on the special tactics people use when already in a relationship and trying to attract someone new--a process known as mate poaching enticement. In Study 1, the authors investigated the tactics people use to entice others into making mate poaching attempts. Enticement tactic effectiveness conformed to evolutionary-predicted patterns across sex and temporal context. In Study 2, the authors examined the tactics men and women use to disguise mate poaching enticement.

Author(s): 
Schmitt, David P.
Shackelford, Todd K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

From the perspective of implicit egotism people should gravitate toward others who resemble them because similar others activate people's positive, automatic associations about themselves. Four archival studies and 3 experiments supported this hypothesis. Studies 1-4 showed that people are disproportionately likely to marry others whose first or last names resemble their own. Studies 5-7 provided experimental support for implicit egotism.

Author(s): 
Jones, John T.
Pelham, Brett W.
Carvallo, Mauricio
Mirenberg, Matthew C.

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