OBJECTIVES: Identify the words and phrases that authors used to describe time-to-event outcomes of dental treatments in patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic handsearch of 50 dental journals with the highest Citation Index for 2008 identified articles reporting dental treatment with time-to-event statistics (included "case" articles, n = 95), without time-to-event statistics (active "control" articles, n = 91), and all other articles (passive "control" articles n = 6796).
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by loss of functional survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), resulting in death of spinal motor neurons. Current therapeutic research focuses on modulating the expression of a partially functioning copy gene, SMN2, which is retained in SMA patients. However, a treatment strategy that improves the SMA phenotype by slowing or reversing the skeletal muscle atrophy may also be beneficial. Myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta super-family, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass.
INTRODUCTION: parental age at conception may affect life expectancy. Adult daughters of older fathers seem to live shorter lives and, in one study, being born to a mother aged <25 was an important predictor of exceptional longevity. The effect of parental age on fitness/frailty in late life is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationships between parental age and frailty and longevity in older adults. METHODS: in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), data was collected on individuals aged >or=65 using a Self-Assessed Risk Factor Questionnaire and screening interview.
The forkhead box proteins (FOXO proteins) comprise a large family of functionally diverse transcription factors involved in cellular proliferation, transformation, differentiation and longevity. Recently, ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of FOXO3a have been reported. In this study, we investigated the role of FOXO3a and Skp2 in human ovarian cancer. We detected the expression of FOXO3a and Skp2 in ovarian cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and analyzed the relationship of FOXO3a and Skp2 with clinicopathological parameters, including prognosis.
BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban (R) is superior to enoxaparin in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS). However, rivaroxaban has never been directly compared with fondaparinux (F), which also shows superior efficacy over enoxaparin. The clinical impact of switching from fondaparinux to rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban or fondaparinux thromboprophylaxis in unselected patients undergoing MOS.
Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrates, and have long been used as an anticonvulsant therapy for drug-intractable and pediatric epilepsy. Additionally, ketogenic diets have been shown to provide neuroprotective effects against acute and chronic brain injury, including beneficial effects in various rodent models of neurodegeneration. Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurological, behavioral and metabolic dysfunction, and ketogenic diets have been shown to increase energy molecules and mitochondrial function.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
We measured life span and fecundity of three reproductive modes in a clone of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas subjected to chronic caloric restriction (CCR) over a range of food concentrations or to intermittent fasting (IF). IF increased life span 50%-70% for all three modes, whereas CCR increased life span of asexual females derived from sexually or asexually produced eggs, but not that of sexual females.
Calorie restriction (CR), a reduction of 10ñ40% in intake of a nutritious diet, is often reported as the most robust non-genetic mechanism to extend lifespan and healthspan. CR is frequently used as a tool to understand mechanisms behind ageing and age-associated diseases. In addition to and independently of increasing lifespan, CR has been reported to delay or prevent the occurrence of many chronic diseases in a variety of animals. Beneficial effects of CR on outcomes such as immune function, motor coordination and resistance to sarcopenia in rhesus monkeys have recently been reported.
Caloric restriction (CR) and down-regulation of the insulin/IGF pathway are the most robust interventions known to increase longevity in lower organisms. However, little is known about the molecular adaptations induced by CR in humans. Here, we report that long-term CR in humans inhibits the IGF-1/insulin pathway in skeletal muscle, a key metabolic tissue. We also demonstrate that CR induces dramatic changes of the skeletal muscle transcriptional profile that resemble those of younger individuals.
Reduced diet or reduced reproduction each extends lifespan in many animals. It is often thought that reduced reproduction and reduced diet may act through the same mechanisms. In grasshoppers, ovariectomy extends lifespan and reduces feeding to a level similar to that used for life extension by dietary restriction, further suggesting mechanistic overlap. Here, we measure the feeding rate of ovariectomized grasshoppers and, by manipulating feeding levels, create a sham-operated & dietary restricted group with matched daily feeding.